Item type | Current location | Call number | Status | Date due | Barcode | Item holds | Course reserves |
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Monografia | Biblioteca Geral da Universidade do Minho | BGUM 321.01 - M | Available | 457266 |
Licenciatura em Administração Pública Estatística Aplicada à Ciência Política 2º semestre Licenciatura em Relações Internacionais Estatística Aplicada à Ciência Política 2º semestre Licenciatura em Ciência Política Estatística Aplicada à Ciência Política 2º semestre |

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Statistics are just as vital to understanding political science as the study of institutions, but getting students to understand them when teaching a methods course can be a big challenge. Statistics for Political Analysis makes understanding the numbers easy. The only introduction to statistics book written specifically for political science undergraduates, this book explains each statistical concept in plain language--from basic univariate statistics and the basic measures of association to bivariate and multivariate regression--and uses real world political examples. Students learn the relevance of statistics to political science, how to understand and calculate statistics mathematically, and how to obtain them using SPSS. All calculations are modeled step-by-step, giving students needed practice to master the process without making it intimidating. Each chapter concludes with exercises that get students actively applying the steps and building their professional skills through data calculation, analysis, and memo writing.

**Preface**(p. xiii)**About the Author**(p. xvii)**1 The Political Use of Numbers: Lies and Statistics**(p. 1)**The Power of Numbers**(p. 2)**The Science of Politics**(p. 3)**Introductory Statistics: An Overview**(p. 7)**Removing the Barriers to Understanding How Statistics Works**(p. 9)**The Importance of Statistics: This Book's Approach**(p. 11)**Using Data to Answer a Question**(p. 11)**A Political Application: Indoctrination U.**(p. 13)**Your Turn: Using Statistics**(p. 15)**Apply It Yourself: Assess Grants to Political Scientists**(p. 16)**Key Terms**(p. 16)**2 Measurement: Counting the Biggel-Balls**(p. 17)**Finding Your Cases**(p. 18)**Measure an Attribute**(p. 20)**Distinguish the Conceptual and Operational Differences**(p. 20)**Articulate the Operational Measure**(p. 21)**Evaluate the Conceptual and Operational Definitions**(p. 25)**Valid Measures**(p. 25)**Measuring Variables Reliably**(p. 26)**Translate Information in Numbers: Coding Your Data**(p. 29)**Create a Coding Sheet**(p. 29)**Code Your Data**(p. 30)**Get a Frequency Distribution**(p. 31)**Summarizing the Process: Measurement**(p. 33)**Use SPSS to Answer a Question with Measurement**(p. 34)**Transfer Your Data to an Electronic Database**(p. 34)**Clean Your Data**(p. 36)**Get a Frequency Table**(p. 38)**An SPSS Application: Europe and the European Union**(p. 39)**Your Turn: Measurement**(p. 48)**Apply It Yourself: Measure the Norm for Chief Justice Appointments**(p. 49)**Key Terms**(p. 50)**3 Measures of Central Tendency: That's Some Mean Baseball**(p. 51)**Measures of Central Tendency**(p. 53)**Mean**(p. 54)**Median**(p. 58)**Mode**(p. 62)**Summarizing the Math: Averages**(p. 64)**Calculate Averages from Raw Data**(p. 64)**Calculate Averages from Tables**(p. 66)**Use SPSS to Answer a Question with Averages**(p. 68)**An SPSS Application: Income in Poor Places**(p. 69)**Your Turn: Measures of Central Tendency**(p. 72)**Apply It Yourself: Calculate the Percent of Earned Income**(p. 74)**Key Terms**(p. 75)**4 Measures of Dispersion: Missing the Mark**(p. 76)**Ranges**(p. 78)**Distance from Mean**(p. 82)**Calculate the Standard Deviation from Raw Data**(p. 82)**Calculate the Standard Deviation from Tabular Data**(p. 84)**Summarizing the Math: Dispersion**(p. 90)**Calculate the Range, Interquartile Range, and Five-Point Summary**(p. 90)**Calculate the Standard Deviation from Raw Data**(p. 92)**Calculate the Standard Deviation from Tabular Data**(p. 95)**Calculate the Standard Deviation for a Dichotomous Variable**(p. 97)**Use SPSS to Answer a Question with Measures of Dispersion**(p. 98)**An SPSS Application: Law School Tuition**(p. 101)**Your Turn: Measures of Dispersion**(p. 106)**Apply It Yourself: Evaluate Graduates' Salaries**(p. 108)**Key Terms**(p. 110)**5 Continuous Probability: So What's Normal Anyway?**(p. 111)**The Normal Curve**(p. 112)**z-Scores**(p. 114)**Using a z Table**(p. 115)**Find the Probability of Negative z-Scores**(p. 117)**Find the Probability of Different Ranges: One-Tailed**(p. 117)**Find the Probability of Different Ranges: Two-Tailed**(p. 120)**Finding a z-Score**(p. 122)**Use Probability to Calculate z-Scores**(p. 123)**Summarizing the Math: Probabilities of Normally Distributed Events**(p. 126)**Calculate z-Scores**(p. 126)**Find the Probability of a z-Score**(p. 128)**Use a Probability to Calculate a Value**(p. 132)**Use SPSS to Answer a Question with Continuous Probability**(p. 135)**An SPSS Application: Crime Data**(p. 137)**Your Turn: Continuous Probability**(p. 142)**Apply It Yourself: Evaluate The Murder Rate**(p. 143)**Key Terms**(p. 144)**6 Means Testing: Sampling a Population**(p. 145)**Type I and Type II Errors**(p. 146)**Means Testing**(p. 148)**Compare Populations with Samples**(p. 148)**Standard Error and t-Tests**(p. 152)**Proportions as a Special Case: Showing Employment Discrimination**(p. 157)**Confidence Intervals: Two-Tailed Distributions**(p. 159)**Confidence Intervals with Proportions**(p. 162)**Choose a Sample Size**(p. 163)**Summarizing the Math: Sampling a Population**(p. 164)**Means Testing**(p. 165)**Means Testing with Proportions**(p. 167)**Confidence Intervals**(p. 169)**Choosing a Sample Size**(p. 170)**Use SPSS to Answer a Question with Means Testing**(p. 171)**A Political Example: Civil War and Infant Mortality**(p. 173)**Your Turn: Means Testing**(p. 176)**Apply It Yourself: Assess Maternal Mortality Rate Increases**(p. 177)**Key Terms**(p. 178)**7 Hypothesis Testing: Examining Relationships**(p. 179)**Hypothesis Testing**(p. 180)**Hypotheses**(p. 181)**The Null Hypothesis**(p. 183)**Analysis of Variance**(p. 185)**Summarizing the Math: Hypothesis Testing and ANOVA**(p. 194)**Hypothesis Testing**(p. 194)**ANOVA**(p. 195)**Use SPSS to Answer a Question with ANOVA**(p. 199)**A Political Example: Partisanship and Support for the President**(p. 202)**Your Turn: Hypothesis Testing**(p. 208)**Apply It Yourself: Examine Partisanship's Effect on Feelings Toward the Democratic Party**(p. 208)**Key Terms**(p. 211)**8 Describing the Pattern: What Do You See?**(p. 212)**Choosing the Appropriate Form of Presentation**(p. 213)**Graphs: Relationships and Scales**(p. 213)**Visualizing a Relationship: Contingency Tables**(p. 220)**Set up a Contingency Table**(p. 221)**Describe the Pattern in a Contingency Table**(p. 224)**Collapse Data for a Contingency Table**(p. 225)**Summarizing the Math: Graphs and Contingency Tables**(p. 228)**Graphs**(p. 228)**Contingency Tables**(p. 231)**Use SPSS to Answer a Question Using a Contingency Table**(p. 235)**An SPSS Application: Life Expectancy and Female Literacy**(p. 237)**Your Turn: Describing the Pattern**(p. 242)**Apply It Yourself: Determine Stability across Legislative Systems**(p. 243)**Key Terms**(p. 244)**9 Chi-Square and Cramer's V: What Do You Expect?**(p. 245)**The Probability of Discrete Events**(p. 246)**Probabilities of Independent Events**(p. 247)**Probabilities of Contingent Events**(p. 249)**Chi-Square**(p. 252)**What We Expect to See**(p. 253)**Comparing What We Expect with What We Actually Observe**(p. 254)**Cramer's V**(p. 258)**Summarizing the Math: Chi-Square and Cramer's V**(p. 260)**Chi-Square**(p. 260)**Cramer's V**(p. 261)**Use SPSS to Answer a Question with Chi-Square and Cramer's V**(p. 264)**An SPSS Application: Cross Tabulation of Religious Freedom**(p. 265)**Your Turn: Chi-Square and Cramer's V**(p. 269)**Apply It Yourself: Analyze Data by Type**(p. 272)**Key Terms**(p. 272)**10 Measures of Association: Making Connections**(p. 273)**Basic Principles of Measures of Association**(p. 274)**Pearson's r**(p. 278)**Get a Visual Intuition for Correlation**(p. 278)**Setting up the Work Table for Pearson's r**(p. 281)**Working through an Example: Political Rights and Civil Liberties**(p. 283)**Gamma**(p. 285)**Positive and Negative Relationships in Contingency Tables**(p. 286)**Gamma for Dichotomous Variables**(p. 287)**Gamma for More than Two Categories**(p. 290)**Kendall's Tau**(p. 296)**Lambda**(p. 297)**Calculating Lambda**(p. 297)**Working through an Example: Generations of Partisanship**(p. 298)**Limitations of Lambda**(p. 300)**Summarizing the Math: Measures of Association**(p. 302)**Pearson's r for Two Interval-Level Variables**(p. 303)**Gamma for Two Ordinal-Level Variables**(p. 306)**Lambda for Nominal-Level Variables**(p. 308)**Use SPSS to Answer a Question with Measures of Association**(p. 310)**An SPSS Application: The Internet and Political Instability**(p. 312)**Your Turn: Measures of Association**(p. 314)**Apply It Yourself: Measure Poor Student Graduation Rates**(p. 317)**Key Terms**(p. 318)**11 Multivariate Relationships: Taking Control**(p. 319)**Spurious Relationships**(p. 320)**Antecedent Variables**(p. 321)**Intervening Variables**(p. 321)**Spurious Non-Relationships**(p. 322)**Interaction Effects**(p. 323)**Three-Way Contingency Tables**(p. 324)**Summarizing the Process: Setting up Three-Way Contingency Tables**(p. 329)**A Political Example: Abortion and Religious Fundamentalism**(p. 330)**Use SPSS to Answer a Question with a Three-Way Contingency Table**(p. 332)**An SPSS Application: Views on Legal Abortion for Rape among Catholics**(p. 333)**Your Turn: Multivariate Relationships**(p. 339)**Apply It Yourself: Analyze Data on Race for Partisanship and Income**(p. 340)**Key Terms**(p. 342)**12 Bivariate Regression: Putting Your Ducks in a Line**(p. 343)**Graph a Relationship**(p. 344)**Plot the Data**(p. 344)**Find a Line**(p. 346)**Fit the Data with the Ordinary Least Squares Estimate of the Line**(p. 346)**Find the Statistical Significance**(p. 350)**Find the Strength of the Relationship**(p. 353)**Use Regressions with Time Series Data**(p. 354)**A Political Example: Murder Rates**(p. 354)**Interpret Regressions with Dichotomous Independent Variables**(p. 356)**A Political Example: Income and Gender**(p. 356)**Summarizing the Math: Regression**(p. 357)**Describe the Pattern by Estimating the Line**(p. 357)**Identify the Statistical Significance with the Standard Error**(p. 358)**Evaluate the Strength of the Association with R 2**(p. 359)**A Political Example: Birth Rates and Abortion Rates**(p. 359)**Use SPSS to Answer a Question with Bivariate Regression**(p. 363)**A Political Example: State Expenditures and Population**(p. 366)**Your Turn: Bivariate Regression**(p. 371)**Apply It Yourself: Analyze Influences on Corruption**(p. 374)**Key Terms**(p. 376)**13 Multiple Regression: The Final Frontier**(p. 377)**Using Regression to Control for Other Variables**(p. 378)**The Assumptions of Regression**(p. 381)**Gauss-Markov Assumption 1 Interval-Level Variables**(p. 382)**Gauss-Markov Assumption 2 Linear Relationship**(p. 384)**Gauss-Markov Assumption 3 Model Correctly Specified**(p. 393)**Gauss-Markov Assumption 4 Non-Collinear**(p. 394)**Gauss-Markov Assumption 5 Errors Have a Mean of Zero**(p. 397)**Gauss-Markov Assumption 6 Errors are Homoscedastic**(p. 397)**Summarizing the Process: Multiple Regression**(p. 398)**Analyzing Multiple Regression**(p. 398)**The Assumptions of Regression**(p. 399)**A Political Example: Teen Pregnancy**(p. 400)**Use SPSS to Answer a Question with Multiple Regression**(p. 401)**Dummy Variables**(p. 401)**Bivariate Scatter Plots**(p. 402)**Residual Scatter Plots**(p. 403)**An SPSS Application: The Relationship of Multiple Factors on State Instability**(p. 404)**Your Turn: Multiple Regression**(p. 412)**Apply It Yourself: Evaluate the Impact of Multiple Factors on the 2012 Presidential Election**(p. 414)**Key Terms**(p. 416)**14 Understanding the Numbers: Knowing What Counts**(p. 417)**Measurement**(p. 418)**Univariate Statistics**(p. 419)**Multivariate Statistics**(p. 421)**Hypotheses**(p. 421)**Describe the Pattern**(p. 422)**Identify the Statistical Significance**(p. 423)**Evaluate the Substantive Significance**(p. 424)**Keeping the Numbers Meaningful**(p. 427)**Embracing the Uncertainty**(p. 428)**Appendix 1 Tips for Professional Writing**(p. 430)**Appendix 2 How to Use SPSS**(p. 436)**Appendix 3 z Table**(p. 443)**Appendix 4 t Table**(p. 445)**Appendix 5 Chi-Square Table**(p. 447)**Notes**(p. 449)**Glossary**(p. 455)**Index**(p. 459)

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