0-521-60579-2 CDU 389

Item type | Current location | Call number | Status | Date due | Barcode | Item holds | Course reserves |
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Monografia | Biblioteca Geral da Universidade do Minho | BGUM 389 - K | Available | 430489 | |||

Monografia | Biblioteca Geral da Universidade do Minho | BGUM 389 - K | Available | 430490 | |||

Monografia | Biblioteca Geral da Universidade do Minho | BGUM 389 - K | Available | 430491 |
Mestrado Integrado em Engenharia Biológica Laboratórios Integrados de Física 2º semestre |

Total holds: 0

Measurement shapes scientific theories, characterises improvements in manufacturing processes and promotes efficient commerce. In concert with measurement is uncertainty, and students in science and engineering need to identify and quantify uncertainties in the measurements they make. This book introduces measurement and uncertainty to second and third year students of science and engineering. Its approach relies on the internationally recognised and recommended guidelines for calculating and expressing uncertainty (known by the acronym GUM). The statistics underpinning the methods are considered and worked examples and exercises are spread throughout the text. Detailed case studies based on typical undergraduate experiments are included to reinforce the principles described in the book. This guide is also useful to professionals in industry who are expected to know the contemporary methods in this increasingly important area. Additional online resources are available to support the book at www.cambridge.org/9780521605793.

**Preface**(p. xi)**1 The importance of uncertainty in science and technology**(p. 1)**1.1 Measurement matters**(p. 3)**1.2 Review**(p. 13)**2 Measurement fundamentals**(p. 15)**2.1 The system of units of measurement**(p. 15)**2.2 Scientific and engineering notations**(p. 21)**2.3 Rounding and significant figures**(p. 22)**2.4 Another way of expressing proportional uncertainty**(p. 26)**2.5 Review**(p. 26)**3 Terms used in measurement**(p. 27)**3.1 Measurement and related terms**(p. 27)**3.2 Review**(p. 34)**4 Introduction to uncertainty in measurement**(p. 35)**4.1 Measurement and error**(p. 35)**4.2 Uncertainty is a parameter that characterises the dispersion of values**(p. 43)**4.3 Standard deviation as a basic measure of uncertainty**(p. 45)**4.4 The uncertainty in the estimate of uncertainty**(p. 49)**4.5 Combining standard uncertainties**(p. 50)**4.6 Review**(p. 52)**5 Some statistical concepts**(p. 53)**5.1 Sampling from a population**(p. 53)**5.2 The least-squares model and least-squares fitting**(p. 59)**5.3 Covariance and correlation**(p. 77)**5.4 Review**(p. 82)**6 Systematic errors**(p. 83)**6.1 Systematic error revealed by specific information**(p. 83)**6.2 Systematic error revealed by changed conditions**(p. 92)**6.3 Review**(p. 96)**7 Calculation of uncertainties**(p. 97)**7.1 The measurand model and propagation of uncertainties from inputs to measurand**(p. 97)**7.2 Correlated inputs**(p. 109)**7.3 Review**(p. 125)**8 Probability density, the Gaussian distribution and central limit theorem**(p. 126)**8.1 Distribution of scores when tossing coins or dice**(p. 126)**8.2 General properties of probability density**(p. 128)**8.3 The uniform or rectangular distribution**(p. 133)**8.4 The Gaussian distribution**(p. 135)**8.5 Experimentally observed non-Gaussian distributions**(p. 139)**8.6 The central limit theorem**(p. 143)**8.7 Review**(p. 153)**9 Sampling a Gaussian distribution**(p. 154)**9.1 Sampling the distribution of the mean of a sample of size n, from a Gaussian population**(p. 154)**9.2 Sampling the distribution of the variance of a sample of size n, from a Gaussian population**(p. 155)**9.3 Sampling the distribution of the standard deviation of a sample of size n, from a Gaussian population**(p. 159)**9.4 Review**(p. 161)**10 The t-distribution and Welch-Satterthwaite formula**(p. 162)**10.1 The coverage interval for a Gaussian distribution**(p. 163)**10.2 The coverage interval using a t-distribution**(p. 169)**10.3 The Welch-Satterthwaite formula**(p. 174)**10.4 Review**(p. 185)**11 Case studies in measurement uncertainty**(p. 191)**11.1 Reporting measurement results**(p. 191)**11.2 Determination of the coefficient of static friction for glass on glass**(p. 192)**11.3 A crater-formation experiment**(p. 197)**11.4 Determination of the density of steel**(p. 203)**11.5 The rate of evaporation of water from an open container**(p. 210)**11.6 Review**(p. 217)**Appendix A Solutions to exercises**(p. 218)**Appendix B 95% Coverage factors, k, as a function of the number of degrees of freedom, v**(p. 222)**Appendix C Further discussion following from the Welch-Satterthwaite formula**(p. 223)**References**(p. 226)**Index**(p. 229)

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