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Molecular fluorescence : principles and applications / Bernard Valeur

Main Author Valeur, Bernard, 1944- Country Alemanha. Publication Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, imp. 2005 Description XIV, 387 p. : il. ; 25 cm ISBN 3-527-29919-X CDU 535.371
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Holdings
Item type Current location Call number Status Date due Barcode Item holds Course reserves
Monografia Biblioteca Geral da Universidade do Minho
BGUMD 110390 Available 362073

Mestrado em Biofísica e Bionanossistemas Técnicas Avançadas em Biofísica I 1º semestre

Mestrado em Biofísica e Bionanossistemas Técnicas Avançadas em Biofísica II 2º semestre

Mestrado em Genética Molecular Técnicas Avançadas de Análise Celular

Total holds: 0

Enhanced descriptions from Syndetics:

Today, fluorescence spectroscopy is an important tool of investigation in many areas. In analytical sciences, its advantage is extremely high sensitivity and selectivity - even single molecules can be detected - and it achieves a high spatial resolution and time resolution in combination with microscopic techniques or laser techniques, respectively. In material sciences, this is used to study structure and dynamics of surfaces. Particularly in the areas of biochemistry and molecular genetics, fluorescence spectroscopy has become a dominating technique. Together with the latest imaging techniques, fluorescence spectroscopy allows a real-time observation of the dynamics of intact biological systems with an unprecedented resolution.
This book offers a comprehensive introduction to and survey of fluorescence spectroscopy. It is written for newcomers and active researchers alike who are learning to apply fluorescence methods in the areas of chemistry, physical chemistry, polymers, materials, colloids, biochemistry, biology, medical and pharmaceutical research.

Table of contents provided by Syndetics

  • Preface (p. xii)
  • Prologue (p. 1)
  • 1 Introduction (p. 3)
  • 1.1 What is luminescence? (p. 3)
  • 1.2 A brief history of fluorescence and phosphorescence (p. 5)
  • 1.3 Fluorescence and other de-excitation processes of excited molecules (p. 8)
  • 1.4 Fluorescent probes (p. 11)
  • 1.5 Molecular fluorescence as an analytical tool (p. 15)
  • 1.6 Ultimate spatial and temporal resolution: femtoseconds, femtoliters, femtomoles and single-molecule detection (p. 16)
  • 1.7 Bibliography (p. 18)
  • 2 Absorption of UV-visible light (p. 20)
  • 2.1 Types of electronic transitions in polyatomic molecules (p. 20)
  • 2.2 Probability of transitions. The Beer-Lambert Law. Oscillator strength (p. 23)
  • 2.3 Selection rules (p. 30)
  • 2.4 The Franck-Condon principle (p. 30)
  • 2.5 Bibliography (p. 33)
  • 3 Characteristics of fluorescence emission (p. 34)
  • 3.1 Radiative and non-radiative transitions between electronic states (p. 34)
  • 3.1.1 Internal conversion (p. 37)
  • 3.1.2 Fluorescence (p. 37)
  • 3.1.3 Intersystem crossing and subsequent processes (p. 38)
  • 3.1.3.1 Intersystem crossing (p. 41)
  • 3.1.3.2 Phosphorescence versus non-radiative de-excitation (p. 41)
  • 3.1.3.3 Delayed fluorescence (p. 41)
  • 3.1.3.4 Triplet-triplet transitions (p. 42)
  • 3.2 Lifetimes and quantum yields (p. 42)
  • 3.2.1 Excited-state lifetimes (p. 42)
  • 3.2.2 Quantum yields (p. 46)
  • 3.2.3 Effect of temperature (p. 48)
  • 3.3 Emission and excitation spectra (p. 48)
  • 3.3.1 Steady-state fluorescence intensity (p. 48)
  • 3.3.2 Emission spectra (p. 50)
  • 3.3.3 Excitation spectra (p. 52)
  • 3.3.4 Stokes shift (p. 54)
  • 3.4 Effects of molecular structure on fluorescence (p. 54)
  • 3.4.1 Extent of [pi]-electron system. Nature of the lowest-lying transition (p. 54)
  • 3.4.2 Substituted aromatic hydrocarbons (p. 56)
  • 3.4.2.1 Internal heavy atom effect (p. 56)
  • 3.4.2.2 Electron-donating substituents: -OH, -OR, -NHR, -NH[subscript 2] (p. 56)
  • 3.4.2.3 Electron-withdrawing substituents: carbonyl and nitro compounds (p. 57)
  • 3.4.2.4 Sulfonates (p. 58)
  • 3.4.3 Heterocyclic compounds (p. 59)
  • 3.4.4 Compounds undergoing photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and internal rotation (p. 62)
  • 3.5 Environmental factors affecting fluorescence (p. 67)
  • 3.5.1 Homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening. Red-edge effects (p. 67)
  • 3.5.2 Solid matrices at low temperature (p. 68)
  • 3.5.3 Fluorescence in supersonic jets (p. 70)
  • 3.6 Bibliography (p. 70)
  • 4 Effects of intermolecular photophysical processes on fluorescence emission (p. 72)
  • 4.1 Introduction (p. 72)
  • 4.2 Overview of the intermolecular de-excitation processes of excited molecules leading to fluorescence quenching (p. 74)
  • 4.2.1 Phenomenological approach (p. 74)
  • 4.2.2 Dynamic quenching (p. 77)
  • 4.2.2.1 Stern-Volmer kinetics (p. 77)
  • 4.2.2.2 Transient effects (p. 79)
  • 4.2.3 Static quenching (p. 84)
  • 4.2.3.1 Sphere of effective quenching (p. 84)
  • 4.2.3.2 Formation of a ground-state non-fluorescent complex (p. 85)
  • 4.2.4 Simultaneous dynamic and static quenching (p. 86)
  • 4.2.5 Quenching of heterogeneously emitting systems (p. 89)
  • 4.3 Photoinduced electron transfer (p. 90)
  • 4.4 Formation of excimers and exciplexes (p. 94)
  • 4.4.1 Excimers (p. 94)
  • 4.4.2 Exciplexes (p. 99)
  • 4.5 Photoinduced proton transfer (p. 99)
  • 4.5.1 General equations (p. 100)
  • 4.5.2 Determination of the excited-state pK (p. 103)
  • 4.5.2.1 Prediction by means of the Forster cycle (p. 103)
  • 4.5.2.2 Steady-state measurements (p. 105)
  • 4.5.2.3 Time-resolved experiments (p. 106)
  • 4.5.3 pH dependence of absorption and emission spectra (p. 106)
  • 4.6 Excitation energy transfer (p. 110)
  • 4.6.1 Distinction between radiative and non-radiative transfer (p. 110)
  • 4.6.2 Radiative energy transfer (p. 110)
  • 4.6.3 Non-radiative energy transfer (p. 113)
  • 4.7 Bibliography (p. 123)
  • 5 Fluorescence polarization. Emission anisotropy (p. 125)
  • 5.1 Characterization of the polarization state of fluorescence (polarization ratio, emission anisotropy) (p. 127)
  • 5.1.1 Excitation by polarized light (p. 129)
  • 5.1.1.1 Vertically polarized excitation (p. 129)
  • 5.1.1.2 Horizontally polarized excitation (p. 130)
  • 5.1.2 Excitation by natural light (p. 130)
  • 5.2 Instantaneous and steady-state anisotropy (p. 131)
  • 5.2.1 Instantaneous anisotropy (p. 131)
  • 5.2.2 Steady-state anisotropy (p. 132)
  • 5.3 Additivity law of anisotropy (p. 132)
  • 5.4 Relation between emission anisotropy and angular distribution of the emission transition moments (p. 134)
  • 5.5 Case of motionless molecules with random orientation (p. 135)
  • 5.5.1 Parallel absorption and emission transition moments (p. 135)
  • 5.5.2 Non-parallel absorption and emission transition moments (p. 138)
  • 5.6 Effect of rotational Brownian motion (p. 140)
  • 5.6.1 Free rotations (p. 143)
  • 5.6.2 Hindered rotations (p. 150)
  • 5.7 Applications (p. 151)
  • 5.8 Bibliography (p. 154)
  • 6 Principles of steady-state and time-resolved fluorometric techniques (p. 155)
  • 6.1 Steady-state spectrofluorometry (p. 155)
  • 6.1.1 Operating principles of a spectrofluorometer (p. 156)
  • 6.1.2 Correction of excitation spectra (p. 158)
  • 6.1.3 Correction of emission spectra (p. 159)
  • 6.1.4 Measurement of fluorescence quantum yields (p. 159)
  • 6.1.5 Problems in steady-state fluorescence measurements: inner filter effects and polarization effects (p. 161)
  • 6.1.6 Measurement of steady-state emission anisotropy. Polarization spectra (p. 165)
  • 6.2 Time-resolved fluorometry (p. 167)
  • 6.2.1 General principles of pulse and phase-modulation fluorometries (p. 167)
  • 6.2.2 Design of pulse fluorometers (p. 173)
  • 6.2.2.1 Single-photon timing technique (p. 173)
  • 6.2.2.2 Stroboscopic technique (p. 176)
  • 6.2.2.3 Other techniques (p. 176)
  • 6.2.3 Design of phase-modulation fluorometers (p. 177)
  • 6.2.3.1 Phase fluorometers using a continuous light source and an electro-optic modulator (p. 178)
  • 6.2.3.2 Phase fluorometers using the harmonic content of a pulsed laser (p. 180)
  • 6.2.4 Problems with data collection by pulse and phase-modulation fluorometers (p. 180)
  • 6.2.4.1 Dependence of the instrument response on wavelength. Color effect (p. 180)
  • 6.2.4.2 Polarization effects (p. 181)
  • 6.2.4.3 Effect of light scattering (p. 181)
  • 6.2.5 Data analysis (p. 181)
  • 6.2.5.1 Pulse fluorometry (p. 181)
  • 6.2.5.2 Phase-modulation fluorometry (p. 182)
  • 6.2.5.3 Judging the quality of the fit (p. 183)
  • 6.2.5.4 Global analysis (p. 184)
  • 6.2.5.5 Complex fluorescence decays. Lifetime distributions (p. 185)
  • 6.2.6 Lifetime standards (p. 186)
  • 6.2.7 Time-dependent anisotropy measurements (p. 189)
  • 6.2.7.1 Pulse fluorometry (p. 189)
  • 6.2.7.2 Phase-modulation fluorometry (p. 192)
  • 6.2.8 Time-resolved fluorescence spectra (p. 192)
  • 6.2.9 Lifetime-based decomposition of spectra (p. 194)
  • 6.2.10 Comparison between pulse and phase fluorometries (p. 195)
  • 6.3 Appendix: Elimination of polarization effects in the measurement of fluorescence intensity and lifetime (p. 196)
  • 6.4 Bibliography (p. 198)
  • 7 Effect of polarity on fluorescence emission. Polarity probes (p. 200)
  • 7.1 What is polarity? (p. 200)
  • 7.2 Empirical scales of solvent polarity based on solvatochromic shifts (p. 202)
  • 7.2.1 Single-parameter approach (p. 202)
  • 7.2.2 Multi-parameter approach (p. 204)
  • 7.3 Photoinduced charge transfer (PCT) and solvent relaxation (p. 206)
  • 7.4 Theory of solvatochromic shifts (p. 208)
  • 7.5 Examples of PCT fluorescent probes for polarity (p. 213)
  • 7.6 Effects of specific interactions (p. 217)
  • 7.6.1 Effects of hydrogen bonding on absorption and fluorescence spectra (p. 218)
  • 7.6.2 Examples of the effects of specific interactions (p. 218)
  • 7.6.3 Polarity-induced inversion of n-[pi] and [pi]-[pi] states (p. 221)
  • 7.7 Polarity-induced changes in vibronic bands. The Py scale of polarity (p. 222)
  • 7.8 Conclusion (p. 224)
  • 7.9 Bibliography (p. 224)
  • 8 Microviscosity, fluidity, molecular mobility. Estimation by means of fluorescent probes (p. 226)
  • 8.1 What is viscosity? Significance at a microscopic level (p. 226)
  • 8.2 Use of molecular rotors (p. 230)
  • 8.3 Methods based on intermolecular quenching or intermolecular excimer formation (p. 232)
  • 8.4 Methods based on intramolecular excimer formation (p. 235)
  • 8.5 Fluorescence polarization method (p. 237)
  • 8.5.1 Choice of probes (p. 237)
  • 8.5.2 Homogeneous isotropic media (p. 240)
  • 8.5.3 Ordered systems (p. 242)
  • 8.5.4 Practical aspects (p. 242)
  • 8.6 Concluding remarks (p. 245)
  • 8.7 Bibliography (p. 245)
  • 9 Resonance energy transfer and its applications (p. 247)
  • 9.1 Introduction (p. 247)
  • 9.2 Determination of distances at a supramolecular level using RET (p. 249)
  • 9.2.1 Single distance between donor and acceptor (p. 249)
  • 9.2.2 Distributions of distances in donor-acceptor pairs (p. 254)
  • 9.3 RET in ensembles of donors and acceptors (p. 256)
  • 9.3.1 RET in three dimensions. Effect of viscosity (p. 256)
  • 9.3.2 Effects of dimensionality on RET (p. 260)
  • 9.3.3 Effects of restricted geometries on RET (p. 261)
  • 9.4 RET between like molecules. Excitation energy migration in assemblies of chromophores (p. 264)
  • 9.4.1 RET within a pair of like chromophores (p. 264)
  • 9.4.2 RET in assemblies of like chromophores (p. 265)
  • 9.4.3 Lack of energy transfer upon excitation at the red-edge of the absorption spectrum (Weber's red-edge effect) (p. 265)
  • 9.5 Overview of qualitative and quantitative applications of RET (p. 268)
  • 9.6 Bibliography (p. 271)
  • 10 Fluorescent molecular sensors of ions and molecules (p. 273)
  • 10.1 Fundamental aspects (p. 273)
  • 10.2 pH sensing by means of fluorescent indicators (p. 276)
  • 10.2.1 Principles (p. 276)
  • 10.2.2 The main fluorescent pH indicators (p. 283)
  • 10.2.2.1 Coumarins (p. 283)
  • 10.2.2.2 Pyranine (p. 283)
  • 10.2.2.3 Fluorescein and its derivatives (p. 283)
  • 10.2.2.4 SNARF and SNAFL (p. 284)
  • 10.2.2.5 PET (photoinduced electron transfer) pH indicators (p. 286)
  • 10.3 Fluorescent molecular sensors of cations (p. 287)
  • 10.3.1 General aspects (p. 287)
  • 10.3.2 PET (photoinduced electron transfer) cation sensors (p. 292)
  • 10.3.2.1 Principles (p. 292)
  • 10.3.2.2 Crown-containing PET sensors (p. 293)
  • 10.3.2.3 Cryptand-based PET sensors (p. 294)
  • 10.3.2.4 Podand-based and chelating PET sensors (p. 294)
  • 10.3.2.5 Calixarene-based PET sensors (p. 295)
  • 10.3.2.6 PET sensors involving excimer formation (p. 296)
  • 10.3.2.7 Examples of PET sensors involving energy transfer (p. 298)
  • 10.3.3 Fluorescent PCT (photoinduced charge transfer) cation sensors (p. 298)
  • 10.3.3.1 Principles (p. 298)
  • 10.3.3.2 PCT sensors in which the bound cation interacts with an electron-donating group (p. 299)
  • 10.3.3.3 PCT sensors in which the bound cation interacts with an electron-withdrawing group (p. 305)
  • 10.3.4 Excimer-based cation sensors (p. 308)
  • 10.3.5 Miscellaneous (p. 310)
  • 10.3.5.1 Oxyquinoline-based cation sensors (p. 310)
  • 10.3.5.2 Further calixarene-based fluorescent sensors (p. 313)
  • 10.3.6 Concluding remarks (p. 314)
  • 10.4 Fluorescent molecular sensors of anions (p. 315)
  • 10.4.1 Anion sensors based on collisional quenching (p. 315)
  • 10.4.2 Anion sensors containing an anion receptor (p. 317)
  • 10.5 Fluorescent molecular sensors of neutral molecules and surfactants (p. 322)
  • 10.5.1 Cyclodextrin-based fluorescent sensors (p. 323)
  • 10.5.2 Boronic acid-based fluorescent sensors (p. 329)
  • 10.5.3 Porphyrin-based fluorescent sensors (p. 329)
  • 10.6 Towards fluorescence-based chemical sensing devices (p. 333)
  • Appendix A. Spectrophotometric and spectrofluorometric pH titrations (p. 337)
  • Appendix B. Determination of the stoichiometry and stability constant of metal complexes from spectrophotometric or spectrofluorometric titrations (p. 339)
  • 10.7 Bibliography (p. 348)
  • 11 Advanced techniques in fluorescence spectroscopy (p. 351)
  • 11.1 Time-resolved fluorescence in the femtosecond time range: fluorescence up-conversion technique (p. 351)
  • 11.2 Advanced fluorescence microscopy (p. 353)
  • 11.2.1 Improvements in conventional fluorescence microscopy (p. 353)
  • 11.2.1.1 Confocal fluorescence microscopy (p. 354)
  • 11.2.1.2 Two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy (p. 355)
  • 11.2.1.3 Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) (p. 356)
  • 11.2.2 Fluorescence lifetime imaging spectroscopy (FLIM) (p. 359)
  • 11.2.2.1 Time-domain FLIM (p. 359)
  • 11.2.2.2 Frequency-domain FLIM (p. 361)
  • 11.2.2.3 Confocal FLIM (CFLIM) (p. 362)
  • 11.2.2.4 Two-photon FLIM (p. 362)
  • 11.3 Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (p. 364)
  • 11.3.1 Conceptual basis and instrumentation (p. 364)
  • 11.3.2 Determination of translational diffusion coefficients (p. 367)
  • 11.3.3 Chemical kinetic studies (p. 368)
  • 11.3.4 Determination of rotational diffusion coefficients (p. 371)
  • 11.4 Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy (p. 372)
  • 11.4.1 General remarks (p. 372)
  • 11.4.2 Single-molecule detection in flowing solutions (p. 372)
  • 11.4.3 Single-molecule detection using advanced fluorescence microscopy techniques (p. 374)
  • 11.5 Bibliography (p. 378)
  • Epilogue (p. 381)
  • Index (p. 383)

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