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Quantitative chemical analysis / Daniel C. Harris

Main Author Harris, Daniel C., 1948- Country Estados Unidos. Edition 6th ed Publication New York : W. H. Freeman, imp. 2002 Description 903 p., pag. var., [12] p. est. color. : il. ; 26 cm ISBN 0-7167-4464-3 CDU 543
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Enhanced descriptions from Syndetics:

This comprehensive introduction to the tools and techniques of analytical chemistry has been thoroughly revised to include contemporary research. The sixth edition also includes new chapters, website and CD ROM. Following on from previous editions this text is thoroughly grounded in reality incorporating real data, spreadsheets, and a wealth of applications. Harris makes the material clear, relevant and accessible.

Table of contents provided by Syndetics

  • Preface (p. xiii)
  • 0 The Analytical Process: The Central Role of Analytical Chemistry (p. 1)
  • 0-1 The Analytical Chemist's Job (p. 2)
  • 0-2 General Steps in a Chemical Analysis (p. 7)
  • Box 0-1 Constructing a Representative Sample (p. 8)
  • 1 Measurements: Chemical Analysis in Environmental Science (p. 10)
  • 1-1 SI Units (p. 11)
  • 1-2 Chemical Concentrations (p. 13)
  • 1-3 Preparing Solutions (p. 17)
  • 1-4 Solutions and Stoichiometry (p. 18)
  • 2 Tools of the Trade: Weighing Femtomoles of DNA (p. 23)
  • 2-1 Safe, Ethical Handling of Chemicals and Waste (p. 24)
  • Box 2-1 Disposal of Chemical Waste (p. 24)
  • 2-2 The Lab Notebook (p. 25)
  • 2-3 Analytical Balance (p. 26)
  • 2-4 Burets (p. 29)
  • 2-5 Volumetric Flasks (p. 31)
  • 2-6 Pipets and Syringes (p. 32)
  • 2-7 Filtration (p. 35)
  • 2-8 Drying (p. 36)
  • 2-9 Calibration of Volumetric Glassware (p. 37)
  • 2-10 Introduction to Microsoft Excel (p. 38)
  • 2-11 Graphing with Microsoft Excel (p. 41)
  • 3 Experimental Error: Experimental Error (p. 45)
  • 3-1 Significant Figures (p. 46)
  • 3-2 Significant Figures in Arithmetic (p. 47)
  • 3-3 Significant Figures and Graphs (p. 48)
  • 3-4 Types of Error (p. 49)
  • Box 3-1 Standard Reference Materials (p. 50)
  • 3-5 Propagation of Uncertainty (p. 51)
  • Box 3-2 Propagation of Uncertainty in the Product x [middle dot] x (p. 55)
  • 4 Statistics: Is My Red Blood Cell Count High Today? (p. 61)
  • 4-1 Gaussian Distribution (p. 62)
  • 4-2 Confidence Intervals (p. 66)
  • 4-3 Comparison of Means with Student's t (p. 69)
  • Box 4-1 Analytical Chemistry and the Law (p. 72)
  • 4-4 Comparison of Standard Deviations with the F Test (p. 72)
  • 4-5 t Tests with a Spreadsheet (p. 74)
  • 4-6 Q Test for Bad Data (p. 75)
  • 5 Calibration Methods: A Historic Calibration Curve (p. 80)
  • 5-1 Finding the "Best" Straight Line (p. 81)
  • 5-2 Calibration Curves (p. 85)
  • Box 5-1 Using a Nonlinear Calibration Curve (p. 88)
  • 5-3 Standard Addition (p. 88)
  • 5-4 Internal Standards (p. 91)
  • 5-5 A Spreadsheet for Least Squares (p. 92)
  • 6 Chemical Equilibrium: Chemical Equilibrium in the Environment (p. 99)
  • 6-1 The Equilibrium Constant (p. 100)
  • 6-2 Equilibrium and Thermodynamics (p. 101)
  • 6-3 Solubility Product (p. 104)
  • 6-4 The Common Ion Effect (p. 105)
  • Demonstration 6-1 Common Ion Effect (p. 105)
  • Box 6-1 The Logic of Approximations (p. 106)
  • 6-5 Separation by Precipitation (p. 107)
  • 6-6 Complex Formation (p. 107)
  • Box 6-2 Notation for Formation Constants (p. 108)
  • 6-7 Protic Acids and Bases (p. 110)
  • 6-8 pH (p. 113)
  • 6-9 Strengths of Acids and Bases (p. 115)
  • Demonstration 6-2 The HCl Fountain (p. 116)
  • Box 6-3 The Strange Behavior of Hydrofluoric Acid (p. 117)
  • Box 6-4 Carbonic Acid (p. 119)
  • 7 Let the Titrations Begin: Evolution of the Buret (p. 128)
  • 7-1 Titrations (p. 129)
  • 7-2 Titration Calculations (p. 130)
  • Box 7-1 Reagent Chemicals and Primary Standards (p. 131)
  • 7-3 Spectrophotometric Titrations (p. 133)
  • 7-4 The Precipitation Titration Curve (p. 134)
  • 7-5 Titration of a Mixture (p. 139)
  • 7-6 Calculating Titration Curves with a Spreadsheet (p. 140)
  • 7-7 End-Point Detection (p. 142)
  • Demonstration 7-1 Fajans Titration (p. 143)
  • 8 Activity: Hydrated Radii (p. 149)
  • 8-1 The Effect of Ionic Strength on Solubility of Salts (p. 150)
  • Demonstration 8-1 Effect of Ionic Strength on Ion Dissociation (p. 150)
  • 8-2 Activity Coefficients (p. 152)
  • Box 8-1 Salts with Ions of Charge [greater than or equal vertical bar]2[vertical bar] Do Not Fully Dissociate into Ions in Water (p. 152)
  • 8-3 Using Activity Coefficients (p. 156)
  • 8-4 pH Revisited (p. 158)
  • 9 Systematic Treatment of Equilibrium: Acid Rain (p. 162)
  • 9-1 Charge Balance (p. 163)
  • 9-2 Mass Balance (p. 164)
  • Box 9-1 Calcium Carbonate Mass Balance in Rivers (p. 165)
  • 9-3 Systematic Treatment of Equilibrium (p. 166)
  • 9-4 The Dependence of Solubility on pH (p. 168)
  • Box 9-2 All Right, Dan, How Would You Really Solve the CaF[subscript 2] Problem? (p. 170)
  • Box 9-3 pH and Tooth Decay (p. 172)
  • 10 Monoprotic Acid-Base Equilibria: Measuring pH Inside Single Cells (p. 178)
  • 10-1 Strong Acids and Bases (p. 179)
  • Box 10-1 Concentrated HNO[subscript 3] Is Only Slightly Dissociated (p. 179)
  • 10-2 Weak Acids and Bases (p. 181)
  • 10-3 Weak-Acid Equilibria (p. 183)
  • Demonstration 10-1 Conductivity of Weak Electrolytes (p. 185)
  • Box 10-2 Dyeing Fabrics and the Fraction of Dissociation (p. 186)
  • 10-4 Weak-Base Equilibria (p. 187)
  • 10-5 Buffers (p. 189)
  • Box 10-3 Strong Plus Weak Reacts Completely (p. 192)
  • Demonstration 10-2 How Buffers Work (p. 193)
  • 11 Polyprotic Acid-Base Equilibria: Proteins Are Polyprotic Acids and Bases (p. 203)
  • 11-1 Diprotic Acids and Bases (p. 204)
  • Box 11-1 Successive Approximations (p. 208)
  • 11-2 Diprotic Buffers (p. 211)
  • 11-3 Polyprotic Acids and Bases (p. 213)
  • 11-4 Which Is the Principal Species? (p. 214)
  • 11-5 Fractional Composition Equations (p. 216)
  • 11-6 Isoelectric and Isoionic pH (p. 217)
  • Box 11-2 Isoelectric Focusing (p. 219)
  • 12 Acid-Base Titrations: Acid-Base Titration of a Protein (p. 224)
  • 12-1 Titration of Strong Acid with Strong Base (p. 225)
  • 12-2 Titration of Weak Acid with Strong Base (p. 227)
  • 12-3 Titration of Weak Base with Strong Acid (p. 231)
  • 12-4 Titrations in Diprotic Systems (p. 232)
  • 12-5 Finding the End Point with a pH Electrode (p. 235)
  • Box 12-1 Alkalinity and Acidity (p. 236)
  • 12-6 Finding the End Point with Indicators (p. 239)
  • Demonstration 12-1 Indicators and the Acidity of CO[subscript 2] (p. 240)
  • Box 12-2 What Does a Negative pH Mean? (p. 241)
  • Box 12-3 World Record Small Titration (p. 243)
  • 12-7 Practical Notes (p. 244)
  • 12-8 The Leveling Effect (p. 245)
  • 12-9 Calculating Titration Curves with Spreadsheets (p. 246)
  • 13 EDTA Titrations: A Chelating Ligand Captures Its Prey (p. 258)
  • 13-1 Metal-Chelate Complexes (p. 259)
  • 13-2 EDTA (p. 261)
  • Box 13-1 Chelation Therapy and Thalassemia (p. 262)
  • 13-3 EDTA Titration Curves (p. 265)
  • 13-4 Do It with a Spreadsheet (p. 267)
  • 13-5 Auxiliary Complexing Agents (p. 268)
  • Box 13-2 Metal Ion Hydrolysis Decreases the Effective Formation Constant for EDTA Complexes (p. 270)
  • 13-6 Metal Ion Indicators (p. 272)
  • Demonstration 13-1 Metal Ion Indicator Color Changes (p. 272)
  • 13-7 EDTA Titration Techniques (p. 275)
  • Box 13-3 Water Hardness (p. 277)
  • 14 Fundamentals of Electrochemistry: Harvesting Electricity from the Ocean Floor (p. 283)
  • 14-1 Basic Concepts (p. 284)
  • 14-2 Galvanic Cells (p. 287)
  • Demonstration 14-1 The Human Salt Bridge (p. 290)
  • 14-3 Standard Potentials (p. 290)
  • 14-4 Nernst Equation (p. 292)
  • Box 14-1 E[degree] and the Cell Voltage Do Not Depend on How You Write the Cell Reaction (p. 294)
  • Demonstration 14-2 Silver and Gold Pennies (p. 295)
  • Box 14-2 Latimer Diagrams: How to Find E[degree] for a New Half-Reaction (p. 296)
  • 14-5 E[degree] and the Equilibrium Constant (p. 298)
  • Box 14-3 Concentrations in the Operating Cell (p. 298)
  • 14-6 Cells as Chemical Probes (p. 300)
  • 14-7 Biochemists Use E[degree]' (p. 303)
  • 15 Electrodes and Potentiometry: A Heparin Sensor (p. 314)
  • 15-1 Reference Electrodes (p. 315)
  • 15-2 Indicator Electrodes (p. 317)
  • Demonstration 15-1 Potentiometry with an Oscillating Reaction (p. 318)
  • 15-3 What Is a Junction Potential? (p. 320)
  • 15-4 How Ion-Selective Electrodes Work (p. 320)
  • 15-5 pH Measurement with a Glass Electrode (p. 323)
  • Box 15-1 Systematic Error in Rainwater pH Measurement: The Effect of Junction Potential (p. 328)
  • 15-6 Ion-Selective Electrodes (p. 330)
  • 15-7 Using Ion-Selective Electrodes (p. 336)
  • 15-8 Solid-State Chemical Sensors (p. 337)
  • 16 Redox Titrations: Chemical Analysis of High-Temperature Superconductors (p. 347)
  • 16-1 The Shape of a Redox Titration Curve (p. 348)
  • Demonstration 16-1 Potentiometric Titration of Fe[superscript 2+] with MnO[superscript - subscript 1] (p. 352)
  • 16-2 Finding the End Point (p. 354)
  • 16-3 Adjustment of Analyte Oxidation State (p. 357)
  • 16-4 Oxidation with Potassium Permanganate (p. 358)
  • 16-5 Oxidation with Ce[superscript 4+] (p. 360)
  • 16-6 Oxidation with Potassium Dichromate (p. 360)
  • 16-7 Methods Involving Iodine (p. 361)
  • Box 16-1 Environmental Carbon Analysis and Oxygen Demand (p. 362)
  • Box 16-2 Iodometric Analysis of High-Temperature Superconductors (p. 366)
  • 17 Electroanalytical Techniques: How Sweet It Is! (p. 372)
  • 17-1 Fundamentals of Electrolysis (p. 373)
  • Demonstration 17-1 Electrochemical Writing (p. 374)
  • 17-2 Electrogravimetric Analysis (p. 378)
  • 17-3 Coulometry (p. 380)
  • 17-4 Amperometry (p. 383)
  • Box 17-1 Oxygen Electrodes (p. 384)
  • Box 17-2 What Is an "Electronic Nose"? (p. 386)
  • 17-5 Voltammetry (p. 388)
  • Box 17-3 The Electric Double Layer (p. 392)
  • 17-6 Karl Fischer Titration of H[subscript 2]O (p. 397)
  • Demonstration 17-2 The Karl Fischer Jacks of a pH Meter (p. 398)
  • 18 Fundamentals of Spectrophotometry: The Ozone Hole (p. 407)
  • 18-1 Properties of Light (p. 408)
  • 18-2 Absorption of Light (p. 409)
  • Box 18-1 Why Is There a Logarithmic Relation Between Transmittance and Concentration? (p. 411)
  • Demonstration 18-1 Absorption Spectra (p. 412)
  • 18-3 Measuring Absorbance (p. 413)
  • 18-4 Beer's Law in Chemical Analysis (p. 415)
  • 18-5 What Happens When a Molecule Absorbs Light? (p. 418)
  • 18-6 Luminescence (p. 422)
  • Box 18-2 Fluorescence All Around Us (p. 422)
  • Box 18-3 Instability of the Earth's Climate (p. 425)
  • 19 Applications of Spectrophotometry: Observing Single DNA Molecules with Molecular Beacons (p. 433)
  • 19-1 Analysis of a Mixture (p. 434)
  • 19-2 Measuring an Equilibrium Constant: The Scatchard Plot (p. 439)
  • 19-3 The Method of Continuous Variation (p. 440)
  • 19-4 Flow Injection Analysis (p. 442)
  • 19-5 Immunoassays and Aptamers (p. 444)
  • 19-6 Sensors Based on Luminescence Quenching (p. 447)
  • Box 19-1 Converting Light into Electricity (p. 448)
  • 20 Spectrophotometers: Automobile Exhaust Analysis and Public Policy (p. 461)
  • 20-1 Lamps and Lasers: Sources of Light (p. 463)
  • 20-2 Monochromators (p. 465)
  • Box 20-1 Blackbody Radiation and the Greenhouse Effect (p. 466)
  • 20-3 Detectors (p. 472)
  • Box 20-2 The Most Important Photoreceptor (p. 475)
  • 20-4 Optodes (p. 477)
  • 20-5 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (p. 481)
  • 20-6 Dealing with Noise (p. 487)
  • 21 Atomic Spectroscopy: An Anthropology Puzzle (p. 494)
  • 21-1 An Overview (p. 495)
  • 21-2 Atomization: Flames, Furnaces, and Plasmas (p. 497)
  • 21-3 How Temperature Affects Atomic Spectroscopy (p. 502)
  • 21-4 Instrumentation (p. 504)
  • 21-5 Interference (p. 509)
  • 21-6 Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (p. 511)
  • 22 Mass Spectrometry: Droplet Electrospray
  • 22-1 What Is Mass Spectrometry? (p. 518)
  • Box 22-1 Molecular Mass and Nominal Mass (p. 519)
  • Box 22-2 How Ions of Different Masses Are Separated by a Magnetic Field (p. 520)
  • 22-2 Oh, Mass Spectrum, Speak to Me! (p. 522)
  • Box 22-3 Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (p. 525)
  • 22-3 Types of Mass Spectrometers (p. 528)
  • 22-4 Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (p. 532)
  • Box 22-4 Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (p. 538)
  • 23 Introduction to Analytical Separations: Measuring Silicones Leaking from Breast Implants (p. 548)
  • 23-1 Solvent Extraction (p. 549)
  • Box 23-1 Crown Ethers (p. 553)
  • 23-2 What Is Chromatography? (p. 553)
  • Demonstration 23-1 Extraction with Dithizone (p. 554)
  • 23-3 A Plumber's View of Chromatography (p. 556)
  • 23-4 Efficiency of Separation (p. 560)
  • 23-5 Why Bands Spread (p. 565)
  • 24 Gas Chromatography: What Did They Eat in the Year 1000? (p. 578)
  • 24-1 The Separation Process in Gas Chromatography (p. 579)
  • Box 24-1 Chiral Phases for Separating Optical Isomers (p. 582)
  • 24-2 Sample Injection (p. 587)
  • 24-3 Detectors (p. 590)
  • 24-4 Sample Preparation (p. 596)
  • 24-5 Method Development in Gas Chromatography (p. 598)
  • 25 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: In Vivo Microdialysis for Measuring Drug Metabolism (p. 607)
  • 25-1 The Chromatographic Process (p. 608)
  • Box 25-1 Monolithic Silica Columns (p. 613)
  • Box 25-2 Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (p. 618)
  • 25-2 Injection and Detection in HPLC (p. 621)
  • 25-3 Method Development for Reversed-Phase Separations (p. 626)
  • 25-4 Gradient Separations (p. 631)
  • 26 Chromatographic Methods and Capillary Electrophoresis: Capillary Electrochromatography (p. 640)
  • 26-1 Ion-Exchange Chromatography (p. 641)
  • 26-2 Ion Chromatography (p. 647)
  • Box 26-1 Surfactants and Micelles (p. 650)
  • 26-3 Molecular Exclusion Chromatography (p. 651)
  • 26-4 Affinity Chromatography (p. 654)
  • 26-5 Principles of Capillary Electrophoresis (p. 654)
  • Box 26-2 Molecular Imprinting (p. 655)
  • 26-6 Conducting Capillary Electrophoresis (p. 663)
  • 27 Gravimetric and Combustion Analysis: Tree Rings and Our Changing Environment (p. 680)
  • 27-1 An Example of Gravimetric Analysis (p. 681)
  • 27-2 Precipitation (p. 682)
  • Demonstration 27-1 Colloids and Dialysis (p. 684)
  • 27-3 Examples of Gravimetric Calculations (p. 688)
  • 27-4 Combustion Analysis (p. 690)
  • 28 Sample Preparation: Extraction Membranes (p. 699)
  • 28-1 Statistics of Sampling (p. 701)
  • 28-2 Dissolving Samples for Analysis (p. 705)
  • 28-3 Sample Preparation Techniques (p. 712)
  • 29 Quality Assurance: The Need for Quality Assurance (p. 720)
  • 29-1 Method Development and Optimization (p. 722)
  • 29-2 Method Validation (p. 723)
  • Box 29-1 The Horwitz Trumpet: Variation in Interlaboratory Tests (p. 726)
  • 29-3 Quality Assessment (p. 729)
  • 29-4 Identifying Sources of Error: Analysis of Variance (p. 734)
  • Spreadsheet Topics
  • 2-10 Introduction to Microsoft Excel (p. 38)
  • 2-11 Graphing with Microsoft Excel (p. 41)
  • 4-1 Average, standard deviation, normal distribution (p. 62)
  • 4-5 t-Test (p. 74)
  • 5-1 Slope and intercept (p. 81)
  • 5-5 Linear least squares curve fitting (p. 92)
  • 7-4 Precipitation titrations (found in Web site supplement)
  • 7-5 Precipitation titration of mixture (found in Web site supplement)
  • Problem 8-16 Circular reference (p. 160)
  • 10-5 Excel Goal Seek and naming cells (p. 198)
  • 12-9 Acid-base titration curves (p. 246)
  • 13-4 EDTA titrations (p. 267)
  • 16-1 Redox titrations (found in Web site supplement)
  • 19-1 Using Excel Solver (p. 434)
  • 19-1 Solving simultaneous equations by matrix inversion (p. 437)
  • 29-2 Correlation coefficient (p. 724)
  • 29-4 Analysis of variance (p. 739)
  • Notes and References (p. 1)
  • Glossary (p. 1)
  • Appendixes (p. 1)
  • A Logarithms and Exponents (p. 1)
  • B Graphs of Straight Lines (p. 2)
  • C Propagation of Uncertainty (p. 3)
  • D Oxidation Numbers and Balancing Redox Equations (p. 5)
  • E Normality (p. 9)
  • F Solubility Products (p. 10)
  • G Acid Dissociation Constants (p. 12)
  • H Standard Reduction Potentials (p. 23)
  • I Formation Constants (p. 32)
  • J Logarithm of the Formation Constant for the Reaction M(aq) + L(aq) [characters not reproducible] ML(aq) (p. 35)
  • Solutions to Exercises (p. 1)
  • Answers to Problems (p. 1)
  • Index (p. 1)

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