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Physical vapor deposition on thin films / John E. Mahan

Main Author Mahan, John E. Country Estados Unidos. Publication New York : John Wiley & Sons, cop. 2000 Description XIII, 312 p. : il. ; 24 cm Series Wiley-Intersience Publication ISBN 0-471-33001-9 CDU 538.975
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Item type Current location Call number Status Date due Barcode Item holds Course reserves
Monografia Biblioteca da UMinho no Campus de Azurém
BPG 538.975 - M Available 278916

Mestrado Integrado em Engenharia de Materiais Ciência e Tecnologia de Filmes Finos 2º semestre

Monografia Biblioteca Geral da Universidade do Minho
BGUM 538.975 - M Available 297677
Monografia Biblioteca Geral da Universidade do Minho
BGUM 538.975 - M Available 333092

Mestrado Integrado em Engenharia Física Física e Tecnologia dos Materiais 2º semestre

Total holds: 0

Enhanced descriptions from Syndetics:

A unified treatment of the theories, data, and technologies underlying physical vapor deposition methods With electronic, optical, and magnetic coating technologies increasingly dominating manufacturing in the high-tech industries, there is a growing need for expertise in physical vapor deposition of thin films. This important new work provides researchers and engineers in this field with the information they need to tackle thin film processes in the real world. Presenting a cohesive, thoroughly developed treatment of both fundamental and applied topics, Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films incorporates many critical results from across the literature as it imparts a working knowledge of a variety of present-day techniques. Numerous worked examples, extensive references, and more than 100 illustrations and photographs accompany coverage of:
* Thermal evaporation, sputtering, and pulsed laser deposition techniques
* Key theories and phenomena, including the kinetic theory of gases, adsorption and condensation, high-vacuum pumping dynamics, and sputtering discharges
* Trends in sputter yield data and a new simplified collisional model of sputter yield for pure element targets
* Quantitative models for film deposition rate, thickness profiles, and thermalization of the sputtered beam

Table of contents provided by Syndetics

  • Preface (p. xv)
  • I Introduction to Physical Vapor Deposition (p. 1)
  • I.1 Physical Vapor Deposition Technologies and Their Basic Physical Science (p. 1)
  • Overview (p. 1)
  • Kinetic Theory (p. 5)
  • Adsorption and Condensation (p. 8)
  • High Vacuum (p. 12)
  • Sputtering Discharges (p. 14)
  • I.2 Summary of Principal Equations (p. 16)
  • I.3 Mathematical Symbols, Constants, and Their Units (p. 17)
  • Reference (p. 18)
  • II The Kinetic Theory of Gases (p. 19)
  • II.1 Statistics (p. 20)
  • The Boltzmann Distribution (p. 20)
  • Characteristic Particle Speeds (p. 22)
  • II.2 Collisions (p. 23)
  • Impingement Rate and Incident Flux Angular Distribution (p. 23)
  • The Ideal Gas Law (p. 26)
  • Mean Free Path (p. 27)
  • II.3 Properties (p. 30)
  • Heat Capacity; the Ideal Diatomic Gas (p. 30)
  • Diffusivity (p. 31)
  • Viscosity (p. 32)
  • Thermal Conductivity (p. 34)
  • II.4 Gas Flow (p. 34)
  • Flow Regimes (p. 34)
  • Viscous Laminar Flow (p. 35)
  • Molecular Flow (p. 36)
  • Conductance (p. 37)
  • II.5 Units of Pressure and Amounts of Gas (p. 38)
  • Units of Pressure (p. 38)
  • Amounts of Gas (p. 39)
  • II.6 Summary of Principal Equations (p. 39)
  • II.7 Appendix (p. 40)
  • Arrhenius Plots (p. 40)
  • Some Definite Integrals (p. 41)
  • Atomic Diameters of the Elements (p. 42)
  • II.8 Mathematical Symbols, Constants, and Their Units (p. 43)
  • References (p. 44)
  • III Adsorption and Condensation (p. 45)
  • III.1 Adsorption of Gases (p. 47)
  • Why Gases Adsorb (p. 47)
  • Mean Residence Time (p. 49)
  • Langmuir's Adsorption Isotherm (p. 49)
  • Atomic Layer Epitaxy (p. 53)
  • III.2 Vapor Pressure (p. 57)
  • The Thermally Activated Vapor Pressure (p. 57)
  • Vapor Pressure Data for the Elements (p. 58)
  • Vapor Pressures of Alloys and Compounds (p. 60)
  • III.3 Condensation of Vapors (p. 62)
  • Condensation of Pure Elements (p. 62)
  • Condensation of Compounds that Produce a Stoichiometric Vapor (p. 64)
  • Flash Evaporation of Compounds that Dissociate (p. 65)
  • Steady-State Techniques for Alloy Films (p. 65)
  • Coevaporation with the Three-Temperature Method (p. 67)
  • Reactive Evaporation and Sputtering (p. 70)
  • III.4 Summary of Principal Equations (p. 71)
  • III.5 Appendix: Thermodynamic Fundamentals (p. 72)
  • The Thermodynamic Potentials and the First and Second Laws (p. 72)
  • The Gibbs Free Energy: The Relevant Potential for Equilibria at Fixed Temperature and Pressure (p. 73)
  • Standard Reaction and Formation Quantities, and the Equilibrium Constant (p. 74)
  • Standard Thermochemical Data (p. 76)
  • III.6 Mathematical Symbols, Constants, and Their Units (p. 79)
  • References (p. 80)
  • IV Principles of High Vacuum (p. 83)
  • IV.1 Basic Vacuum Concepts (p. 84)
  • Pumping Speed (p. 84)
  • Throughput (p. 87)
  • A Throughput Law (p. 88)
  • Conductance (p. 93)
  • IV.2 Behavior of Real Vacuum Systems (p. 94)
  • A More Realistic Vacuum System Model (p. 94)
  • Desorption, Outgassing, and Permeation (p. 96)
  • IV.3 Operation Principles of Vacuum Pumps and Gauges (p. 99)
  • How Seven Important Pumps Work (p. 99)
  • Two Vacuum Gauges in Widespread Use: The Thermocouple and Ionization Gauges (p. 105)
  • IV.4 Summary of Principal Equations (p. 107)
  • IV.5 Appendix (p. 107)
  • How to Draw and Analyze Vacuum Schematic Diagrams (p. 107)
  • An Electrical Network Analogy (p. 108)
  • A Survey of Past Definitions of Throughput (p. 111)
  • IV.6 Mathematical Symbols, Constants, and Their Units (p. 112)
  • References (p. 112)
  • V Evaporation Sources (p. 115)
  • V.1 The Effusion Cell and Nozzle-Jet Evaporation Sources (p. 117)
  • The Ideal Effusion Cell (p. 117)
  • The Cosine Law of Emission (p. 118)
  • The Nonequilibrium Effusion Cell (p. 119)
  • The Near-Ideal Effusion Cell (p. 121)
  • The Open-Tube Effusion Cell (p. 123)
  • The Conical Effusion Cell (p. 124)
  • The Nozzle-Jet Source (p. 125)
  • V.2 Free Evaporation Sources (p. 127)
  • Free Evaporation (p. 127)
  • The Ideal Point Source Model (p. 129)
  • How E-Gun Evaporators Work (p. 129)
  • Beam Intensity of the E-Gun Evaporator (p. 131)
  • V.3 Pulsed Laser Deposition (p. 133)
  • Laser-Induced Vaporization (p. 133)
  • A Simple Heating Model (p. 135)
  • Other Phenomena (p. 141)
  • V.4 Materials Aspects of Evaporation Sources (p. 143)
  • Evaporation Temperatures of the Elements (p. 143)
  • The Problem of Composition Change in the Evaporation of Alloys (p. 144)
  • Crucible Interactions (p. 146)
  • V.5 Summary of Principal Equations (p. 147)
  • V.6 Mathematical Symbols, Constants, and Their Units (p. 148)
  • References (p. 149)
  • VI Principles of Sputtering Discharges (p. 153)
  • VI.1 Sputtering Arrangements (p. 155)
  • DC Sputtering (p. 155)
  • RF Sputtering (p. 156)
  • The Magnetron (p. 157)
  • Other Sputtering Arrangements (p. 158)
  • VI.2 A Practical Sputtering Plasma and its Current Densities and Potentials (p. 159)
  • A Practical Sputtering Plasma (p. 159)
  • The Ideal Langmuir Probe (p. 161)
  • An Experimental Langmuir Probe Characteristic (p. 165)
  • The Enhanced Ion Current Density (p. 165)
  • The Probe Sheath (p. 168)
  • VI.3 Gaseous Discharges for Sputtering (p. 170)
  • A DC Discharge Model (p. 170)
  • The Cathode and Anode Sheaths (p. 174)
  • The Sputtering Projectiles that Bombard the Cathode (p. 176)
  • An RF Discharge Model (p. 178)
  • The RF Sheaths (p. 182)
  • VI.4 Summary of Principal Equations (p. 183)
  • VI.5 Appendix (p. 184)
  • The Voltage--Current Characteristic of a DC Discharge (p. 184)
  • The Voltage--Current Characteristic of an RF Discharge (p. 189)
  • The DC Glow (p. 190)
  • The RF Glow (p. 193)
  • Exceptions to the Above (p. 193)
  • VI.6 Mathematical Symbols, Constants, and Their Units (p. 195)
  • References (p. 196)
  • VII Sputtering (p. 199)
  • VII.1 General Characteristics and Background (p. 199)
  • Definition of Sputtering (p. 199)
  • The Mechanisms of Sputtering (p. 201)
  • A Brief History of Sputtering Theory and Simulation (p. 203)
  • Sources of Sputter Yield Data (p. 205)
  • VII.2 Trends in Sputter Yield Data (p. 206)
  • Projectile Energy Dependence (p. 207)
  • Dependence on Surface Binding Energy (p. 212)
  • Dependence on Choice of Projectile (p. 214)
  • Effect of Angle of Incidence (p. 214)
  • Energy Distribution of Sputtered Particles (p. 219)
  • Angular Distribution of Sputtered Particles (p. 220)
  • Single-Crystal Targets (p. 222)
  • Target Conditioning and Dose Effects (p. 222)
  • VII.3 Basic Concepts for Modeling (p. 223)
  • The Surface Binding Energy (p. 223)
  • Energy Transfer in Binary Elastic Collisions of Hard Spheres (p. 225)
  • Threshold Energy for Sputtering at Normal Incidence (p. 227)
  • Nuclear Energy Loss Theory (p. 229)
  • Linear Cascade Theory (p. 232)
  • VII.4 A Simplified Collisional Model for Sputter Yield (p. 238)
  • A Yield Expression (p. 238)
  • Predictions (p. 241)
  • Summary (p. 244)
  • VII.5 An Ideal Sputter Deposition Source (p. 245)
  • The Cosine Law of Emission (p. 245)
  • The Beam Intensity of a Sputtering Source (p. 247)
  • Combined Internal Flux Spectra for the Simplified Collisional Model (p. 248)
  • Combined External Spectra Assuming the Spherical Surface Binding Model (p. 248)
  • Combined External Spectra Assuming the Planar Surface Binding Model (p. 249)
  • VII.6 Summary of Principal Equations Not Found in the Sample Calculation of Yield (p. 250)
  • VII.7 Appendixes (p. 251)
  • Appendix A The Empirical Yield Formula of Matsunami et al. [1984] (p. 251)
  • Appendix B A Summary of Target Parameters (p. 252)
  • Appendix C Some Collisional Sputtering Theories (p. 256)
  • Appendix D A Sample Calculation of Yield with the Simplified Collisional Model (p. 258)
  • VII.8 Mathematical Symbols, Constants, and Their Units (p. 259)
  • References (p. 260)
  • VIII Film Deposition (p. 265)
  • VIII.1 Incident Flux and Film Deposition Rate (p. 267)
  • The Incident Flux at the Substrate (p. 267)
  • Film Deposition Rate (p. 269)
  • Associated Substrate Heating Mechanisms (p. 272)
  • VIII.2 Film Thickness Profiles of the Ideal Small Source (p. 277)
  • Three Fundamental Receiving Surfaces (p. 277)
  • The Moving-Shutter Technique (p. 278)
  • VIII.3 Thermalization and Ionization of the Sputtered Beam (p. 281)
  • The Thermalization Distance (p. 283)
  • Reduction of the Incident Flux (p. 283)
  • Ionized Physical Vapor Deposition (p. 286)
  • VIII.4 Deposition with Substrate Rotation and with Ideal Large Sources (p. 289)
  • Off-Axis Substrate Rotation (p. 290)
  • A Large Disk Source with a Planar Substrate (p. 291)
  • A Large Ring Source (p. 293)
  • VIII.5 Deposition Monitors (p. 295)
  • The Quartz Crystal Microbalance (p. 295)
  • True Flux Sensors (p. 298)
  • VIII.6 Summary of Principal Equations (p. 300)
  • VIII.7 Appendix: Some Definite Integrals (p. 300)
  • VIII.8 Mathematical Symbols, Constants, and Their Units (p. 301)
  • References (p. 302)
  • Index (p. 305)

Author notes provided by Syndetics

John E. Mahan, Ph.D. is Professor of Electrical Engineering at Colorado State University.

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