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The craft of research / Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colom, Joseph M. Williams

Main Author Booth, Wayne C. Coauthor Colom, Gregory G.
Williams, Joseph M.
Country Estados Unidos. Publication Chicago : The University of Chicago Press, 1995 Description XII, 294 p. ; 22 cm Series Chicago guides to writing, editing and publishing ISBN 0-226-06584-7 CDU 001.8
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Monografia Biblioteca Geral da Universidade do Minho
BGUMD 92437 Available 179198

Mestrado em Engenharia de Redes e Serviços Telemáticos Planeamento de Dissertação em Engenharia de Redes e Serviços de Telemáticos 1º semestre

Monografia Biblioteca Vitor Aguiar e Silva
BVAS 001.8 - B Indisponível | Not available 186341
Monografia Biblioteca Geral da Universidade do Minho
BGUMD 35 Available 280360
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Enhanced descriptions from Syndetics:

This manual offers practical advice on the fundamentals of research to college and university students in all fields of study. The Craft of Research teaches much more than the mechanics of fact gathering: it explains how to approach a research project as an analytical process. The authors chart every stage of research, from finding a topic and generating research questions about it to marshalling evidence, constructing arguments, and writing everything up in a final report that is a model of authority. Their advice is designed for use by both beginners and seasoned practitioners, and for projects from class papers to dissertations.

This book is organized into four parts. Part One is a spirited introduction to the distinctive nature, values, and protocols of research. Part Two demystifies the art of discovering a topic. It outlines a wide range of sources, among them personal interests and passions. Parts Three and Four cover the essentials of argument--how to make a claim and support it--and ways to outline, draft, revise, rewrite, and polish the final report. Part Three is a short course in the logic, structure, uses, and common pitfalls of argumentation. The writing chapters in Part Four show how to present verbal and visual information effectively and how to shape sentences and paragraphs that communicate with power and precision.

"A well-constructed, articulate reminder of how important fundamental questions of style and approach, such as clarity and precision, are to all research."-- Times Literary Supplement

Table of contents provided by Syndetics

  • Preface (p. xi)
  • I Research, Researchers, and Readers (p. 1)
  • Prologue: Starting a Research Project (p. 3)
  • 1 Thinking in Print: The Uses of Research, Public and Private (p. 9)
  • 1.1 What Is Research? (p. 10)
  • 1.2 Why Write It Up? (p. 12)
  • 1.3 Why a Formal Report? (p. 13)
  • 1.4 Conclusion (p. 15)
  • 2 Connecting with Your Reader: (Re)Creating Your Self and Your Audience (p. 17)
  • 2.1 Creating Roles for Writers and Readers (p. 17)
  • 2.2 Creating a Relationship with Your Reader: Your Role (p. 19)
  • 2.3 Creating the Other Half of the Relationship: The Reader's Role (p. 22)
  • 2.4 Writing in Groups (p. 26)
  • 2.5 Managing the Unavoidable Problem of Inexperience (p. 30)
  • Quick Tip: A Checklist for Understanding Your Readers (p. 32)
  • II Asking Questions, Finding Answers (p. 35)
  • Prologue: Planning Your Project (p. 37)
  • 3 From Topics to Questions (p. 40)
  • 3.1 From an Interest to a Topic (p. 41)
  • 3.2 From a Broad Topic to a Focused One (p. 43)
  • 3.3 From a Focused Topic to Questions (p. 45)
  • 3.4 From a Merely Interesting Question to Its Wider Significance (p. 49)
  • Quick Tip: Finding Topics (p. 53)
  • 4 From Questions to Problems (p. 56)
  • 4.1 Problems, Problems, Problems (p. 57)
  • 4.2 The Common Structure of Problems (p. 60)
  • 4.3 Finding a Good Research Problem (p. 68)
  • 4.4 Summary: The Problem of the Problem (p. 70)
  • Quick Tip: Disagreeing with Your Sources (p. 72)
  • 5 From Problems to Sources (p. 75)
  • 5.1 Screening Sources for Reliability (p. 76)
  • 5.2 Locating Printed and Recorded Sources (p. 79)
  • 5.3 Finding Sources on the Internet (p. 83)
  • 5.4 Gathering Data Directly from People (p. 85)
  • 5.5 Bibliographic Trails (p. 88)
  • 5.6 What You Find (p. 88)
  • 6 Using Sources (p. 90)
  • 6.1 Three Uses for Sources (p. 91)
  • 6.2 Reading Generously but Critically (p. 95)
  • 6.3 Preserving What You Find (p. 96)
  • 6.4 Getting Help (p. 104)
  • Quick Tip: Speedy Reading (p. 106)
  • III Making a Claim and Supporting it (p. 109)
  • Prologue: Pulling Together Your Argument (p. 111)
  • 7 Making Good Arguments: An Overview (p. 114)
  • 7.1 Argument and Conversation (p. 114)
  • 7.2 Basing Claims on Reasons (p. 116)
  • 7.3 Basing Reasons on Evidence (p. 117)
  • 7.4 Acknowledging and Responding to Alternatives (p. 118)
  • 7.5 Warranting the Relevance of Reasons (p. 119)
  • 7.6 Building Complex Arguments Out of Simple Ones (p. 121)
  • 7.7 Arguments and Your Ethos (p. 122)
  • Quick Tip: Designing Arguments Not for Yourself but for Your Readers: Two Common Pitfalls (p. 124)
  • 8 Claims (p. 127)
  • 8.1 What Kind of Claim? (p. 127)
  • 8.2 Evaluating Your Claim (p. 129)
  • Quick Tip: Qualifying Claims to Enhance Your Credibility (p. 135)
  • 9 Reasons and Evidence (p. 138)
  • 9.1 Using Reasons to Plan Your Argument (p. 138)
  • 9.2 The Slippery Distinction between Reasons and Evidence (p. 140)
  • 9.3 Evidence vs. Reports of Evidence (p. 142)
  • 9.4 Selecting the Right Form for Reporting Evidence (p. 144)
  • 9.5 Reliable Evidence (p. 145)
  • Quick Tip: Showing the Relevance of Evidence (p. 149)
  • 10 Acknowledgments and Responses (p. 151)
  • 10.1 Questioning Your Argument (p. 152)
  • 10.2 Finding Alternatives to Your Argument (p. 154)
  • 10.3 Deciding What to Acknowledge (p. 157)
  • 10.4 Responses as Subordinate Arguments (p. 159)
  • Quick Tip: The Vocabulary of Acknowledgment and Response (p. 161)
  • 11 Warrants (p. 165)
  • 11.1 How Warrants Work (p. 166)
  • 11.2 What Warrants Look Like (p. 168)
  • 11.3 Knowing When to State a Warrant (p. 168)
  • 11.4 Testing Your Warrants (p. 170)
  • 11.5 Challenging the Warrants of Others (p. 177)
  • Quick Tip: Some Strategies for Challenging Warrants (p. 179)
  • IV Preparing to Draft, Drafting, and Revising (p. 183)
  • Prologue: Planning Again (p. 185)
  • Quick Tip: Outlining (p. 187)
  • 12 Planning and Drafting (p. 189)
  • 12.1 Preliminaries to Drafting (p. 189)
  • 12.2 Planning: Four Traps to Avoid (p. 191)
  • 12.3 A Plan for Drafting (p. 193)
  • 12.4 The Pitfall to Avoid at All Costs: Plagiarism (p. 201)
  • 12.5 The Next Step (p. 204)
  • Quick Tip: Using Quotation and Paraphrase (p. 205)
  • 13 Revising Your Organization and Argument (p. 208)
  • 13.1 Thinking Like a Reader (p. 209)
  • 13.2 Analyzing and Revising Your Overall Organization (p. 209)
  • 13.3 Revising Your Argument (p. 216)
  • 13.4 The Last Step (p. 218)
  • Quick Tip: Titles and Abstracts (p. 219)
  • 14 Introductions and Conclusions (p. 222)
  • 14.1 The Three Elements of an Introduction (p. 222)
  • 14.2 Establishing Common Ground (p. 225)
  • 14.3 Stating Your Problem (p. 228)
  • 14.4 Stating Your Response (p. 232)
  • 14.5 Fast or Slow? (p. 234)
  • 14.6 Organizing the Whole Introduction (p. 235)
  • 14.7 Conclusions (p. 236)
  • Quick Tip: Opening and Closing Words (p. 238)
  • 15 Communicating Evidence Visually (p. 241)
  • 15.1 Visual or Verbal? (p. 244)
  • 15.2 Tables vs. Figures (p. 244)
  • 15.3 Constructing Tables (p. 245)
  • 15.4 Constructing Figures (p. 248)
  • 15.5 Visual Communication and Ethics (p. 260)
  • 15.6 Using Graphics as an Aid to Thinking (p. 261)
  • 16 Revising Style: Telling Your Story Clearly (p. 263)
  • 16.1 Judging Style (p. 263)
  • 16.2 A First Principle: Stories and Grammar (p. 265)
  • 16.3 A Second Principle: Old Before New (p. 274)
  • 16.4 Choosing between Active and Passive (p. 275)
  • 16.5 A Final Principle: Complexity Last (p. 277)
  • 16.6 Spit and Polish (p. 280)
  • Quick Tip: The Quickest Revision (p. 281)
  • V Some Last Considerations (p. 283)
  • The Ethics of Research (p. 285)
  • A Postscript for Teachers (p. 289)
  • An Appendix on Finding Sources (p. 297)
  • General Sources (p. 298)
  • Special Sources (p. 299)
  • A Note on Some of Our Sources (p. 317)
  • Index (p. 325)

Reviews provided by Syndetics


This resource book for libraries serving the community colleges and institutions of higher education is a worthy addition to the stable of books known as the "Chicago Guides to Writing, Editing, and Publishing"; however, this new addition has a misleading title; it should have been "The Craft of Research Reporting." Although some material in the early chapters relates to starting and conducting research, most of the book is devoted to planning, organizing, writing, and editing research reports. The book will be invaluable to the first-year student arriving at college with little or no experience in writing. Graduate students undertaking thesis research would do well to examine this book during the early planning stages of that endeavor. The book contains 15 chapters ranging from "Making Good Arguments" to "Communicating Evidence Visually," plus supplemental material covering items such as ethics, a message to teachers, and valuable elements on finding and using sources. "[The] book explains how researchers must work at different stages of their project simultaneously, how that overlap can help them understand the problem better, and how they can manage the complexity this process entails." Highly recommended to teachers of writing. Undergraduate through faculty. L. H. Stevenson McNeese State University

Author notes provided by Syndetics

A graduate student at the University of Chicago in the late 1940s, when the English Department was dominated by members of the Chicago School of criticism, Wayne Booth returned to his alma mater in the early 1960s and became an exponent of its critical methodology. The Chicago Critics were influenced by the formalistic, rhetorical analysis of the Poetics of Aristotle, which was concerned with the principles of literary construction and literary esthetics. Unlike the New Critics, who shared their interest in formalist analysis of texts, the Chicago Critics emphasized the importance of knowledge about the author and his or her historical context. They considered the New Criticism, which had developed at about the same time, too restrictive in its bracketing of that information as external to the text and therefore incidental to understanding and evaluating it.

The first generation of Chicago School critics, who were Booth's teachers, did not have much impact beyond the university itself. Booth, however, continued to advocate pluralism. Critical Understanding: The Powers and Limits of Pluralism Critical Understanding: (1979) helped revitalize and popularize Chicago School principles.

Booth is associated with two other movements in contemporary literary theory: reader-response criticism and narratology. The former includes a heterogeneous group of reader-oriented rather than text-oriented methodologies. The latter is usually seen as a type of structuralist or proto-structuralist literary study, since it focuses on the function and the grammar, or structure, of narrative. Linked with both is Booth's Rhetoric of Fiction (1962), which concentrates on the analysis of point of view and how writers manipulate it so that readers accept the values of the implied author of a text's narration. Booth's work has increasingly emphasized reading, ethics, and the rhetoric of persuasion-a concern already implicit in this early book.

(Bowker Author Biography)

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