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Practical flow cytometry / Howard M. Shapiro

Main Author Shapiro, Howard M., 1941- Country Estados Unidos. Edition 4th ed Publication Hoboken, N.J. : Wiley-Liss, cop. 2003 Description L, 681 p. : il. ; 29 cm ISBN 0-471-41125-6 CDU 577.1
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Enhanced descriptions from Syndetics:

From the reviews of the 3rd Edition...

"The standard reference for anyone interested in understanding flow cytometry technology."
American Journal of Clinical Oncology

"...one of the most valuable of its genre and...addressed to a wide audience'written in such an attractive way, being both informative and stimulating."
Trends in Cell Biology

This reference explains the science and discusses the vast biomedical applications of quantitative analytical cytology using laser-activated detection and cell sorting. Now in its fourth edition, this text has been expanded to provide full coverage of the broad spectrum of applications in molecular biology and biotechnology today. New to this edition are chapters on automated analysis of array technologies, compensation, high-speed sorting, reporter molecules, and multiplex and apoptosis assays, along with fully updated and revised references and a list of suppliers.

Table of contents provided by Syndetics

  • List of Tables and Figures (p. xxvii)
  • Preface to the Fourth Edition: Why you Should Read this Book - or Not (p. xxxiii)
  • Foreword to the Third Edition (p. xxxix)
  • Preface to the Third Edition (p. xli)
  • Preface to the Second Edition (p. xlv)
  • Foreword to the First Edition (p. xlvii)
  • Preface to the First Edition (p. xlix)
  • 1. Overture (p. 1)
  • 1.1 What (And What Good) Is Flow Cytometry? (p. 1)
  • Tasks and Techniques of Cytometry (p. 1)
  • Some Notable Applications (p. 1)
  • What is Measured: Parameters and Probes (p. 2)
  • 1.2 Beginnings: Microscopy And Cytometry (p. 2)
  • A Little Light Music (p. 4)
  • Making Mountains out of Molehills: Microscopy (p. 6)
  • Why Cytometry? Motivation and Machinery (p. 9)
  • Flow Cytometry and Sorting: Why and How (p. 10)
  • 1.3 Problem Number One: Finding The Cell(s) (p. 14)
  • Flow Cytometry: Quick on the Trigger (p. 16)
  • The Main Event (p. 17)
  • The Pulse Quickens, the Plot Thickens (p. 17)
  • 1.4 Flow Cytometry: Problems, Parameters, Probes, and Principles (p. 18)
  • Counting Cells: Precision I (Mean, S.D., CV) (p. 18)
  • And Now to See with Eye Serene the Very Pulse of the Machine: Display, Digitization, and Distributions (p. 21)
  • DNA Content Analysis: Precision II (Variance) (p. 21)
  • Two-Parameter Displays: Dot Plots and Histograms (p. 26)
  • Identifying Cells in Heterogeneous Populations: Lift Up Your Heads, Oh Ye Gates! (p. 33)
  • Sorting Sorting Out (p. 40)
  • Parameters and Probes II: What is Measured and Why (p. 42)
  • 1.5 What's In the Box: Flow Cytometer Anatomy, Physiology, and Pathology (p. 49)
  • Light Sources for Microscopy and Flow Cytometry (p. 49)
  • Instrument Configurations: The Orthogonal Geometry (p. 50)
  • Laser Beam Geometry and Illumination Optics (p. 50)
  • Flow Chamber and Forward Scatter Collection Optics (p. 51)
  • Fluorescence and Orthogonal Scatter Optics (p. 52)
  • Optical Filters for Spectral Separation (p. 52)
  • Multistation Flow Cytometers (p. 54)
  • Photomultipliers and Detector Electronics (p. 54)
  • Putting the Flow in Flow Cytometry (p. 55)
  • Signal Processing Electronics (p. 57)
  • Is It Bigger than a Breadbox? (p. 57)
  • Flow Cytometer Pathology and Diagnostics (p. 58)
  • 1.6 Alternatives to Flow Cytometry; Cytometer Ecology (p. 59)
  • 1.7 The Rest Of The Book (p. 60)
  • Lis(z)t Mode (p. 60)
  • 2. Learning Flow Cytometry (p. 61)
  • Learning from History: Take One (p. 61)
  • Who Should Read this Book? (p. 62)
  • 2.1 Information Sources and Resources (p. 62)
  • Books on Flow Cytometry in General (p. 62)
  • Books on Flow Cytometric Methodology and Protocols (p. 62)
  • Clinical Flow Cytometry Books (p. 63)
  • Other Flow Cytometry Books (p. 63)
  • Flow's Golden Oldies (p. 63)
  • 2.2 The Reader's Guide To Periodical Literature (p. 64)
  • 2.3 Resources And Courses (p. 66)
  • Flow Cytometer Manufacturers (p. 66)
  • The International Society for Analytical Cytology (p. 66)
  • The Clinical Cytometry Society (p. 66)
  • The National Flow Cytometry Resource (p. 66)
  • "The Annual Courses" and Others (p. 67)
  • Other Societies and Programs (p. 67)
  • The Purdue Mailing List, Web Site, and CD-ROMs (p. 68)
  • 2.4 Exploring The Foundations (p. 68)
  • Optics and Microscopy (p. 68)
  • Electronics (p. 69)
  • Computers: Hardware and Software (p. 69)
  • Digital Signal Processing (p. 70)
  • Data Presentation and Display (p. 70)
  • Spectroscopy, Fluorescence and Dye Chemistry (p. 71)
  • Cell and Molecular Biology and Immunology (p. 71)
  • 2.5 Alternatives To Flow Cytometry (p. 71)
  • 3. History (p. 73)
  • 3.1 Ancient History (p. 73)
  • Flow Cytometry: Conception and Birth (p. 73)
  • Staining Before and After Paul Ehrlich (p. 74)
  • Origins of Modern Microscopy (p. 75)
  • Making Cytology Quantitative: Caspersson et al (p. 75)
  • Origins of Cancer Cytology: The Pap Smear (p. 76)
  • The Fluorescent Antibody Method (p. 77)
  • Blood Cell Counting: Theory and Practice (p. 77)
  • Video and Electron Microscopy (p. 78)
  • Optical Cell Counters and the Coulter Orifice (p. 78)
  • 3.2 Classical History (p. 79)
  • Analytical Cytology in the 1950's (p. 79)
  • The Cytoanalyzer (p. 79)
  • Acridine Orange as an RNA Stain: Round One (p. 79)
  • How I Got Into this Mess (p. 79)
  • The Rise of Computers (p. 80)
  • Computers in Diagnosis: A Central Problem (p. 80)
  • Diagnosis and Classification: Statistical Methods (p. 80)
  • Cytology Automation in the 1960's (p. 81)
  • First Steps toward Automated Differentials (p. 81)
  • Pattern Recognition Tasks in Cell Identification (p. 82)
  • Differential Leukocyte Counting: An Early Flow Systems Approach (p. 83)
  • Kamentsky's Rapid Cell Spectrophotometer (p. 84)
  • Fulwyler's Cell Sorter (p. 85)
  • 3.3 Modern History (p. 85)
  • Cell Cycle Analysis: Scanning versus Flow Systems (p. 85)
  • Cancer Cytology: Scanning versus Flow Cytometry (p. 86)
  • Early Commercial Flow Cytometers (p. 87)
  • Not Quite Commercial: The Block Projects (p. 89)
  • The Evolution of Flow Cytometers in the 1970's (p. 90)
  • Dog Days: The Genesis of Cytomutts (p. 93)
  • The 1980's: Little Things Mean a Lot (p. 94)
  • Measurements in the Main Stream (p. 95)
  • Clinical Uses of Fluorescence Flow Cytometry (p. 98)
  • The End of History? (p. 99)
  • 4. How Flow Cytometers Work (p. 101)
  • 4.1 Light and Matter (p. 101)
  • Introduction (p. 101)
  • Photometry versus Radiometry: What's in a Name? (p. 101)
  • Physical Measurement Units (p. 101)
  • Light in Different Lights (p. 102)
  • It's All Done With Photons (p. 102)
  • A Few Warm Bodies (p. 103)
  • Polarization and Phase; Interference (p. 104)
  • Light Meets Matter: Rayleigh and Mie Scattering (p. 105)
  • A Time for Reflection-and Refraction: Snell's Law (p. 107)
  • Polarization by Reflection; Brewster's Angle (p. 107)
  • Dispersion: Glass Walls May Well a Prism Make (p. 108)
  • Interference in Thin Films (p. 108)
  • Interference and Diffraction; Gratings (p. 108)
  • Optical Activity and Birefringence (p. 109)
  • Matter Eats Light: Absorption (p. 109)
  • Absorption: Counting the Calories (p. 110)
  • A Selective Diet (p. 110)
  • The Chance of a Lifetime (p. 110)
  • Spinning a Tale of Degeneracy (p. 111)
  • Facing Extinction: Cross Section and Optical Density (p. 111)
  • Unexciting Times: Emigrating from the Excited States (p. 112)
  • Fluorescence: Working the Stokes Shift (p. 112)
  • Phosphorescence (p. 113)
  • Fluorescence Polarization (p. 114)
  • Stimulated Emission (p. 114)
  • Resonance Energy Transfer (p. 115)
  • Quenching, Bleaching, and Photon Saturation (p. 115)
  • Quantum Flotsam and Jetsam (p. 118)
  • 4.2 Optical Systems (p. 119)
  • Light Propagation and Vergence (p. 119)
  • Image Formation by Optical Systems: Magnification (p. 119)
  • Lens Types and Lens Aberrations (p. 120)
  • Numerical Aperture and Lens Performance (p. 121)
  • Gradient Index, Fresnel, and Cylindrical Lenses (p. 122)
  • The Helmholtz Invariant and Throughput (p. 123)
  • Photons in Lenses: See How They Run (p. 123)
  • Aperture and Field Stops: The f Number (p. 124)
  • Depth of Field and Focus and Resolution of Lenses (p. 124)
  • 4.3 Light Sources (p. 124)
  • The Best and the Brightest (p. 124)
  • Harc, Harc, the Arc! (p. 126)
  • Quartz Halogen Lamps (p. 127)
  • Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) (p. 127)
  • Illumination Optics for Lamps and LEDs (p. 127)
  • Arc Source Epiillumination for Flow Cytometry (p. 128)
  • Lasers as Light Sources for Flow Cytometers (p. 129)
  • Laser Illumination: Going to Spot (p. 130)
  • Shedding Light on Cells: Lasers, Lamps, and LEDs (p. 131)
  • Lasers: The Basic Physics (p. 133)
  • Lasers Used and Usable in Cytometry (p. 138)
  • Laser and Light Source Noise and Noise Compensation (p. 147)
  • Danger!!! Laser!!! Hazards and Haze (p. 148)
  • 4.4 Light Collection (p. 149)
  • Microscope Objectives (p. 149)
  • Looking at the Observation Point (p. 150)
  • Stops versus Blockers (p. 150)
  • Signal versus Noise: To See or Not to See (p. 150)
  • Spectral Selection: Monochromators versus Filters (p. 152)
  • Neutral Density Filters (p. 156)
  • Beamsplitters; Ghosts and Ghostbusters (p. 156)
  • Optics for Polarization Measurements (p. 156)
  • Tunable Filters (p. 157)
  • Fiber Optics and Optical Waveguides (p. 157)
  • Through a Glass Darkly: Light Lost (and Found) in Optical Components (p. 158)
  • Collection Optics for Forward Scatter Signals (p. 159)
  • 4.5 Detectors (p. 160)
  • Silicon Photodiodes (p. 160)
  • Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) (p. 161)
  • Sensitivity Training: Photodiode versus PMT (p. 163)
  • Single Photon Counting (p. 164)
  • Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs) (p. 164)
  • PMTs: Picking a Winner (p. 165)
  • Photomultipliers: Inexact Science (p. 166)
  • Charge Transfer Devices: CCDs, CIDs, Etc. (p. 166)
  • 4.6 Flow Systems (p. 166)
  • Flow System Basics (p. 167)
  • When You've a Jet (p. 174)
  • Core and Sheath: Practical Details (p. 175)
  • Grace Under Pressure: Driving the Sheath and Core (p. 175)
  • Perfect Timing: Fluidics for Kinetic Experiments (p. 177)
  • Oriented and Disoriented Cells (p. 178)
  • Matchmaker, Matchmaker, Make Me a(n) Index Match! (p. 178)
  • Flow Unsheathed (p. 178)
  • Flow Systems: Garbage In, Garbage Out (p. 178)
  • 4.7 Electronic Measurements (p. 180)
  • Electricity and Electronics 101 (p. 180)
  • The Coulter Principle: Electronic Cell Sizing (p. 182)
  • 4.8 Analog Signal Processing (p. 183)
  • Beam Geometry and Pulse Characteristics (p. 183)
  • Electronics 102: Real Live Circuits (p. 184)
  • Detector Preamplifiers and Baseline Restoration (p. 190)
  • Analog Pulse Processing: Front Ends and Triggering (p. 191)
  • Dead Times, Doublets, and Problem Pulses (p. 196)
  • Trigger Happy? (p. 196)
  • Analog Linear, Log and Ratio Circuits (p. 197)
  • 4.9 Digital Signal Processing (p. 204)
  • Analog-to-Digital Conversion (p. 204)
  • Digital Pulse Processing and DSP Chips (p. 209)
  • Digitization: Tying it All Together (p. 214)
  • 4.10 Performance: Precision, Sensitivity, and Accuracy (p. 214)
  • Precision; Coefficient of Variation (CV) (p. 214)
  • Sensitivity I Minimum Detectable Signal (p. 215)
  • Sensitivity II MESF Units (p. 216)
  • Accuracy I Linearity and Nonlinearity (p. 217)
  • Sensitivity III What's All the Noise About? (p. 217)
  • Sensitivity IV More Photons Give Better Precision (p. 218)
  • Sensitivity V Background Effects (p. 218)
  • Sensitivity VI Electrons Have Statistics, Too (p. 218)
  • Source Noise Fluctuations and Performance (p. 219)
  • I Blurred It Through the Baseline (p. 219)
  • Restoration Comedy: The Case of the Disappearing Leukocytes (p. 220)
  • Top 40 Noise Sources (p. 221)
  • Sensitivity 007: Q and B (Dye Another Day?) (p. 221)
  • 5. Data Analysis (p. 225)
  • 5.1 Goals and Methods in Data Analysis (p. 225)
  • Cell Counting (p. 225)
  • Characterization of Pure Cell Populations (p. 226)
  • Identification of Cells in Mixed Populations (p. 226)
  • Characterization of Cell Subpopulations (p. 226)
  • Data Analysis Hardware and Software Evolve (p. 226)
  • 5.2 Computer Systems for Flow Cytometry (p. 227)
  • The Beginning (p. 227)
  • The End of the Beginning (p. 227)
  • Data Rates and Data Acquisition Systems (p. 228)
  • 5.3 Primary Data: Frequency Distributions (p. 231)
  • You Say You Want a Distribution (p. 231)
  • Distributions Have Their Moments (p. 233)
  • Some Features of the Normal Distribution (p. 234)
  • Measures of Central Tendency: Arithmetic and Geometric Means, Median, and Mode (p. 235)
  • Measures of Dispersion: Variance, Standard Deviation, CV, and Interquartile Range (p. 235)
  • Robustness in Statistics; the Robust CV (p. 235)
  • Calculating and Displaying Histograms (p. 236)
  • Bivariate and Multivariate Distributions and Displays (p. 237)
  • 5.4 Compensating Without Decompensating (p. 242)
  • 5.5 Dealing With the Data (p. 244)
  • Comparing and Analyzing Univariate Histograms (p. 244)
  • Deconvoluting Single-Parameter Histograms (p. 246)
  • Analysis of Two-Parameter Data (p. 246)
  • Analysis of Two-Parameter Distributions (p. 247)
  • 5.6 Multiparameter Data Analysis (p. 248)
  • Multiparameter versus Multivariate Analysis (p. 248)
  • Multiparameter Analysis of Leukocyte Types: 1974 (p. 248)
  • Multiparameter Analysis of Leukocyte Types: 2002 (p. 250)
  • Procedures for Automated Classification (p. 250)
  • 5.7 Analysis of Collected Data: How Much Is Enough/Too Much? (p. 253)
  • 5.8 Data Analysis Odds and Ends (p. 254)
  • Data Storage (p. 254)
  • Linear and Log Scales and Ratios: Proceed with Care! (p. 255)
  • 6. Flow Sorting (p. 257)
  • 6.1 Sort Control (Decision) Logic (p. 257)
  • 6.2 Preselected Count Circuits and Single Cell Sorting (p. 258)
  • 6.3 Droplet Sorting, High-Speed and Low (p. 258)
  • Droplet Generation (p. 259)
  • Drop Charging and Deflection (p. 260)
  • Determining Droplet Delay Settings (p. 262)
  • Transducers and Transducer Drive Signals (p. 263)
  • Improving Droplet Sorting (p. 263)
  • Sorting Large Objects with Droplet Sorters (p. 263)
  • 6.4 Fluidic Switching Cell Sorters (p. 264)
  • Sorting Large Objects Using Fluidic Switching (p. 265)
  • Sorting Very Small Objects: Microfluidic Switching (p. 266)
  • 6.5 Cell Manipulation By Optical Trapping (p. 266)
  • 6.6 Cell Damage Cell Selection ("Cell Zapping") (p. 266)
  • Photodamage Cell Selection (p. 266)
  • Sorting (Zapping) Without Flow (Gasp!) (p. 267)
  • Electrodamage Cell Selection in Flow (p. 267)
  • 6.7 Measures of Cell Sorter Performance: Purity, Recovery (Yield), and Efficiency (p. 267)
  • Coincidence Effects on Performance (p. 267)
  • 6.8 Other Considerations (p. 268)
  • Doing the Math (p. 268)
  • Speed Limits: The Reynolds Rap (p. 269)
  • Instrument Utilization (p. 269)
  • Monitoring versus Sorting for Cell Preparation (p. 269)
  • Collection Techniques: Life and Death Decisions (p. 269)
  • Dilutions of Grandeur (p. 270)
  • Can Getting Sorted Be Hazardous to Cells' Health? (p. 270)
  • 6.9 Biohazard Control and Biosafety in Flow Cytometers and Sorters (p. 271)
  • 6.10 Conclusions (p. 271)
  • 7. Parameters and Probes (p. 273)
  • 7.1 Physical Parameters and Their Uses (p. 273)
  • Electrical Parameters (p. 273)
  • Acoustic Measurements of Cells in Flow (p. 274)
  • Optical Parameters: Light Scattering (p. 274)
  • Optical Parameters: Absorption (p. 281)
  • Optical Parameters: Extinction (p. 282)
  • Other Transmitted Light Measurements (p. 282)
  • Optical Parameters: Fluorescence (p. 283)
  • Optical Parameters: Fluorescence
  • 7.2 Intrinsic Cellular Parameters (p. 285)
  • Cell Size (p. 285)
  • Cell Shape and Doublet Discrimination (p. 289)
  • Measurement of Intrinsic Parameters Using Absorption and Extinction Signals (p. 290)
  • Fluorescence Measurement of Intrinsic Parameters (p. 290)
  • 7.3 Probes, Labels, and [Not] Protocols for Extrinsic Parameter Measurements (p. 293)
  • Probes, Labels, and Dyes (p. 293)
  • Dyes and Quality Control: Gorillas in the NIST (p. 294)
  • The Dyes are Cast: An Overview (p. 295)
  • Mechanisms of Staining by Fluorescent Dyes (p. 298)
  • "Vital" Staining (p. 299)
  • Fixation--Why and How (p. 302)
  • Red Blood Cell Lysis: The Distilled Essence (p. 306)
  • 7.4 Nucleic Acid Dyes and Their Uses (p. 306)
  • DNA Content Measurement (p. 306)
  • DNA Base Composition (p. 317)
  • Chromatin Structure; Identifying Cells in Mitosis (p. 319)
  • RNA Content (p. 320)
  • 7.5 Fluorescent Labels and Protein Dyes (p. 326)
  • Estimating Total and Basic Protein Content of Cells (p. 327)
  • Covalent Labels for Antibodies and Other Molecules (p. 328)
  • Future Tandems: Heterocycles Built for Two? (p. 335)
  • Cyanine Dye Labels: From Cy-Fi to Hi5 for Cy5 (p. 336)
  • Blue Notes: AMCA and Cascade Blue (p. 337)
  • Hey, BODIPY! (p. 337)
  • Alexa Dyes: Some Thoughts on Dyemographics (p. 338)
  • Other Organic Fluorescent Labels: A Dye Named Joe, etc. (p. 338)
  • Quantum Dots (p. 339)
  • Getting Labels Onto Molecules of Interest (p. 340)
  • 7.6 Improving Signals from Labels: Amplification and Other Techniques (p. 340)
  • Limits to Sensitivity: Autofluorescence (p. 341)
  • Raman Scattering Effects on Sensitivity (p. 342)
  • Increasing Sensitivity: Amplification Techniques (p. 343)
  • Improving Sensitivity: Time-Resolved Fluorescence (p. 345)
  • 7.7 Measuring Cell Surface and Intracellular Antigens (p. 345)
  • History and Background (p. 345)
  • Antibody Reagents and Staining Procedures (p. 348)
  • Fluorescence Measurements: Lurching Toward Quantitation (p. 353)
  • 7.8 Nucleic Acid Sequence Detection (p. 361)
  • Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) Probes (p. 362)
  • 7.9 Probes for Various Cell Constituents (p. 362)
  • Surface Sugars (Lectin Binding Sites (p. 362)
  • Analysis of Total Carbohydrate Content (p. 363)
  • Specific Detection of Cellulose (p. 363)
  • A Probe for Cell Surface Aldehydes (p. 363)
  • Probes for Lipids and Cholesterol (p. 364)
  • Probes for Cytoskeletal Organization/Actins (p. 364)
  • 7.10 Time as a Parameter: Kinetic Measurements (p. 364)
  • Sample Handling for Kinetic Measurements (p. 365)
  • Time as a Quality Control Parameter (p. 366)
  • Slooowww Flooowww (p. 366)
  • 7.11 Labeled Ligand Binding (p. 366)
  • Labeling Strategies (p. 367)
  • Formal Analysis of Ligand binding (p. 367)
  • Labeled Ligands versus Anti-Receptor Antibodies (p. 368)
  • Ligand Binding Detected by Functional Changes (p. 368)
  • Fluorescent Ligand Binding: Some Examples (p. 368)
  • 7.12 Functional Parameters I (p. 369)
  • Cell Surface Charge (p. 369)
  • Cell Membrane Characteristics (p. 369)
  • Enzyme Activity (p. 378)
  • Sulfhydryl (Thiol) Groups; Glutathione (p. 381)
  • 7.13 Functional Probes II: Indicators of Cell Activation (p. 381)
  • Introduction (p. 381)
  • Changes in the Cellular Ionic Environment Following Activation by Ligand Interaction with Cell Surface Receptors (p. 382)
  • "Structuredness of Cytoplasmic Matrix" (SCM) and the Cercek Test for Cancer (p. 383)
  • Optical Probes of Cell Membrane Potential (p. 385)
  • Optical Probes of Intracellular Calcium (p. 402)
  • Flow Cytometric Probes of Intracellular pH (p. 405)
  • The Hat Trick: Multiparameter Approaches to Ion Flux Measurements in Cell Activation (p. 407)
  • NOsing Around for Nitric Oxide (p. 408)
  • Other Ions in the Fire (p. 408)
  • 7.14 Reporter Genes (p. 408)
  • Somebody Cloned My Gal: Enzymes as Reporter Genes (p. 408)
  • Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) et al (p. 409)
  • Minority Report(er)? (p. 410)
  • 8. Buying Flow Cytometers (p. 411)
  • 8.1 Introduction (p. 411)
  • 8.2 History (p. 411)
  • 8.3 BD Biosciences (p. 412)
  • Background (p. 412)
  • The BD FACS Vantage SE Cell Sorter (p. 413)
  • The BD FACSCalibur Analyzer (p. 414)
  • The B-D LSR II Analyzer (p. 416)
  • The B-D FACSAria Cell Sorter (p. 417)
  • The B-D FACSCount (p. 418)
  • 8.4 Beckman Coulter, Inc. (p. 418)
  • Background--and Signal-to-Background (p. 418)
  • The Beckman Coulter EPICS ALTRA Cell Sorter (p. 419)
  • The Beckman Coulter Cytomics FC 500 Analyzer (p. 420)
  • The EPICS XL and XL-MCL Analyzers (p. 422)
  • 8.5 DakoCytomation (p. 423)
  • Background (p. 423)
  • The MoFlo Cell Sorter (p. 423)
  • The CyAn Flow Cytometer (p. 424)
  • 8.6 Cytopeia (p. 425)
  • The InFlux Cell Sorter (p. 425)
  • 8.7 Optoflow AS (p. 426)
  • Background (p. 426)
  • The MICROCYTE Flow Cytometer (p. 426)
  • 8.8 Partec GmbH (p. 427)
  • Background (p. 427)
  • The CyFlow and CyFlow ML Flow Cytometers (p. 427)
  • The PAS, PAS II, and PAS III Flow Cytometers (p. 428)
  • PA Ploidy Analyzer and CCA Cell Counter Analyzer (p. 429)
  • 8.9 Some Other Flow Cytometer Companies (p. 429)
  • Advanced Analytical Technologies, Inc. (AATI) (p. 429)
  • Agilent Technologies, Inc. (p. 429)
  • Apogee Flow Systems Ltd. (p. 430)
  • Bentley Instruments (p. 430)
  • Chemunex SA (p. 430)
  • CytoBuoy b.v. (p. 430)
  • Delta Instruments bv (p. 431)
  • Fluid Imaging Technologies, Inc. (p. 431)
  • FOSS Electric A/S (p. 431)
  • Guava Technologies, Inc. (p. 431)
  • Howard M. Shapiro, M.D., P.C. (p. 431)
  • iCyt--Visionary Bioscience (p. 431)
  • International Remote Imaging Systems (p. 431)
  • Luminex Corporation (p. 431)
  • NPE Systems, Inc. (p. 432)
  • Union Biometrica, Inc. (p. 432)
  • 8.10 Hematology Instruments, Etc. (p. 433)
  • 8.11 Little Orphan Analyzers (And Big Orphan Sorters) (p. 434)
  • Bio/Physics and Ortho: Cytofluorograf to Cytoron (p. 434)
  • HEKA Elektronik GMBH: The FLUVO II Analyzer (p. 435)
  • The Kratel Partograph (p. 435)
  • The ODAM ATC 3000 (p. 435)
  • Also Among the Missing (p. 436)
  • Flow Cytometer Rehabilitation; Used Instruments (p. 436)
  • Following Suit (p. 436)
  • 8.12 Third Party Software (p. 437)
  • 8.13 The Selling of Flow Cytometers: Hype and Reality (p. 437)
  • 8.14 Applying for a Grant for a Cytometer (p. 438)
  • 9. Building Flow Cytometers (p. 441)
  • 9.1 Why Buy a Flow Cytometer? (p. 441)
  • 9.2 Why Build a Flow Cytometer? (p. 441)
  • 9.3 Learning to Build Your Own (p. 442)
  • 10. Using Flow Cytometers: Applications, Extensions, and Alternatives (p. 443)
  • 10.1 The Daily Grind (p. 443)
  • Keeping the Instrument Running: Diet and Exercise (p. 443)
  • Particulars: Drawing a Bead on Flow Cytometer Alignment, Calibration, and Standardization (p. 444)
  • Rose Colored Glasses: Optical Filter Selection (p. 446)
  • Experimental Controls (p. 447)
  • Shake Well Before Using: When Controls Won't Help (p. 447)
  • 10.2 Significant Events in the Lives of Cells (p. 448)
  • Taking the Census: Cell Counting (p. 448)
  • The Doubled Helix: Reproduction (p. 448)
  • Memento Mori: Detecting Cell Death (p. 462)
  • Die Another Day: Cytometry of Telomeres (p. 464)
  • 10.3 Identification of Cells in Mixed Populations (p. 464)
  • Mixed Genotypes versus Mixed Phenotypes (p. 464)
  • No Parameter Identifies Cancer Cells (p. 464)
  • Many Parameters Identify Blood Cells (p. 464)
  • Flow Cytometric Parameters Useful for Blood Cells (p. 464)
  • Specific Gene Products Identify Cell Types (p. 465)
  • Maturation Processes and "Missing Links": The "Ginger Root" Model (p. 465)
  • Practical Multiparameter Gating: Color Wars (p. 467)
  • Finding Rare Cells (p. 469)
  • 10.4 Tricks and Twists: Odd Jobs for Flow Cytometry (p. 471)
  • Single Molecule Detection (p. 471)
  • DNA Sizing, if not Sequencing, in Flow (p. 471)
  • Solid Phase (Bead) Assays Using Flow Cytometry (p. 473)
  • Cells in Gel Microdroplets and on Microspheres (p. 474)
  • 10.5 Single Cell Analysis: When Flow Won't Do (p. 475)
  • 10.6 Applications of Flow Cytometry (p. 476)
  • Cell Differentiation, Ab Ovo and De Novo (p. 476)
  • Somatic Cell Genetics and Cell Hybridization (p. 477)
  • Chromosome Analysis and Sorting and Flow Karyotyping (p. 477)
  • Probing Details of Cellular Structures and Inter- and Intramolecular Interactions (p. 479)
  • Clinical Flow Cytometry: Turf and Surf (p. 480)
  • Hematology (p. 480)
  • Immunology (p. 489)
  • Cancer Biology and Clinical Oncology (p. 502)
  • Analysis of Sperm (p. 508)
  • Isolating Fetal Cells from the Maternal Circulation for Prenatal Diagnosis (p. 509)
  • The March of Time: Circadian Rhythms, Aging, and Atherosclerosis (p. 510)
  • Clinical Application: Urine Analysis (p. 510)
  • The Animal Kingdom (p. 510)
  • Big Stuff, Vegetable, Animal or Mineral (p. 512)
  • Flow Cytometry of Plant Cells and Chromosomes (p. 512)
  • Microbiology, Parasitology and Marine Biology (p. 514)
  • Pharmacology and Toxicology (p. 537)
  • Food Science (p. 538)
  • Biotechniques and Biotechnology (p. 539)
  • Alternatives: Microfluidic Cytometers, Flow and Static (p. 541)
  • Cytometry Afield (p. 541)
  • 11. Sources of Supply (p. 543)
  • 11.1 Resources, Societies, Journals (p. 543)
  • 11.2 Optical Supply Houses (p. 543)
  • 11.3 Probes and Reagents (p. 544)
  • 11.4 Calibration Particles/Cytometry Controls (p. 548)
  • 11.5 Flow Cytometers (p. 549)
  • Hematology Instruments (p. 551)
  • 11.6 Data Analysis Software/Systems (p. 551)
  • Hardware and Software (p. 551)
  • Commercial Software Sources (p. 552)
  • Noncommercial Software Sources (p. 552)
  • 11.7 Cytometer Rehabilitation/Add-ons (p. 553)
  • 11.8 Flow Cytometer Parts (p. 553)
  • Flow System Plumbing (p. 553)
  • Photodetectors (p. 554)
  • DC-DC Converter Modules for HV Power Supplies (p. 555)
  • Power Supplies (Low Voltage) (p. 555)
  • Other Electronics (p. 555)
  • 11.9 Lasers (p. 555)
  • Laser Trade Publications (p. 555)
  • Laser Manufacturers (p. 555)
  • 11.10 Optical Filters (p. 556)
  • Color Glass Filters (p. 556)
  • Interference Filters (p. 557)
  • Neutral Density Filters (p. 557)
  • Polarizing Filters and Optics (p. 557)
  • Tunable Filters (p. 557)
  • 11.11 Aids to Troubleshooting Flow Cytometers When All Else Fails (p. 557)
  • 11.12 Proficiency Testing (p. 557)
  • 11.13 Sex Selection (p. 557)
  • 11.14 Alternative Technology (p. 558)
  • 12. Afterword (p. 561)
  • 12.1 Dotting i's and Crossing t's (p. 561)
  • 12.2 Late Breaking News (p. 561)
  • New Book (p. 561)
  • New Protein Stain (p. 561)
  • Caveat on Fluorescent Caspase Inhibitors (p. 561)
  • Polyamide Probes (p. 561)
  • Tearing Down the (Picket) Fences (p. 562)
  • New Instrument: The BD FACSArray (p. 563)
  • Science Special Section: Biological Imaging (p. 563)
  • Cytomics in Predictive Medicine: a Clinical Cytometry Special Issue and Other Recent Citings and Sightings (p. 563)
  • 12.3 Analytical Biology, Such as it Isn't: Is This Any Way to Run a Science? (p. 563)
  • 12.4 Colophon (p. 564)
  • 12.5 Unfinished Business (p. 565)
  • AIDS and Infectious Disease in the Third World (p. 565)
  • A Center for Microbial Cytometry (p. 565)
  • A Nobel Prize for Herzenberg and Kamentsky? (p. 566)
  • 12.6 Flow and the Human Condition (p. 566)
  • There's No Business Like Flow Business (p. 566)
  • 12.7 One More Thing (p. 566)

Author notes provided by Syndetics

Howard M. Shapiro is the author of Practical Flow Cytometry , 4th Edition, published by Wiley.

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